Summaries & Continuity Notes for the Oz Series


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Beyond the popular MGM film, The Wizard of Oz, there have been numerous stories told in the pages of the Oz books, many by the original author L. Frank Baum, many by his successors, Ruth Plumly Thompson, John R. Neill, Jack Snow, Rachel Cosgrove Payes, and the McGraws, and many in the pages of books, magazines, and graphic novels that continue to be told in the original Oz universe Baum started.


The Oz universe is the first fantasy world to feature crossovers and an expanded universe. To help navigate this interwoven tapestry of story, The Royal Timeline of Oz presents chronologies, plot summaries and continuity notes to help demonstrate how it all connects.


Spoilers abound! If you haven't yet read the stories, it's recommended that you do so first if possible. This list is intended as an aid for readers interested in observing continuity in the body of Ozian lore, as well as for authors and editors concerned with maintaining consistency with what has come before, as demarcated on The Royal Timeline of Oz.


This page is designed as follows:

Books in the Oz Universe (in chronological order)

Baum Bugle & Miscellaneous magazines

Oziana magazine

The Emerald City Mirror magazine

Oz-story Magazine

The Ozmapolitan

Realms and Fairylands Outside Oz


Click on thumbnails for a larger image


Books in the Oz Universe


The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus

The third Borderlands of Oz Book (Book #63 of the Supreme Seventy-Five)


History: Although sometimes overlooked, this is a significant story in Oz canon as it establishes the hierarchy of the fairies and immortals.


Synopsis: When a baby is discovered in the fairy-forest of Burzee, the Master Woodman of the World, Ak, allows the fairy Necille to raise him. Neclaus grows into a young man, and Ak shows him the world and the suffering of children. Neclaus decides to start making toys for the children and employs the help of the ryls and knooks and reindeer. When his fame begins to spread, the evil race of Awgwas and others decide to destroy Santa, prompting Ak and the other immortals to strike back.


Continuity Notes

Burzee and the Laughing Valley: The fairyland that is the Forest of Burzee appears in numerous stories moving forward, and comes to be situated on the Nonestican continent south of the Quadling Country across the Great Sandy Waste, and north of Thumbumbia, which is shown to be its neighbor in "The Runaway Shadows." At this time, however, it appears that Burzee and the Laughing Valley are part of the outside world, and have not yet been removed from it to the Continent of Imagination.


Dating: The date is uncertain. Santa must be a young man prior to the European settlement of the New Land. While it appears that toys are a new concept for children, in fact, toys go back to the most ancient civilizations. Nevertheless, the European communities and cities that Santa came to know appear to have been generally poor, and the time-period one in which children and their parents had very little. The dating is better set by the establishing of Christmas, giving us a date of no later than the 4th century.


Crossovers and Sequels: Years later, Santa is visited by the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman in Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz, and later visits Oz himself in The Emerald City Mirror #22 story "Santa Claus in Oz" and The Road to Oz. He makes several appearances in modern Oz books, as well. Baum wrote his own sequel, A Kidnapped Santa Claus. The Hungry Tiger Press edition of The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus appropriately includes it as the later chapters. It is not known how many of the Santa Claus stories from other authors can be considered "true," as per Baum's mythology. It's clear that many are false, as they give vastly different origin stories. But of those that deal with his later life, only Ruth Plumly Thompson's The Curious Cruise of Captain Santa can be considered as potentially true, and even in this account, she portrays a very different Santa, personality-wise, than the one Baum does. Of course, the stories are separated by vast periods of time, and Thompson's own writing style and approach have to be taken into account.


The Gnome King: The Gnome King that Santa visits is not Roquat the Nome King, who wasn't born until around 925 (according to Pirates in Oz), but his predecessor, possibly his father, possibly Goldemar from Zauberlinda the Wise Witch, and there are other candidates.


Reindeer: The idea of Santa using reindeer to deliver his presents around the world on Christmas Eve comes from the 1821 poem "Old Santeclaus with Much Delight," published by William B. Gilley in a small paperback book entitled The Children's Friend: A New-Year's Present, to the Little Ones from Five to Twelve. But it was two years later, in the 1823 poem, "A Visit from St. Nicholas," (commonly known as "The Night Before Christmas") by Clement Clark Moore, that they first got the names by which they're currently known, Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donder (or Dunder; Donner is a mistake), Blixen (or Blixem or Blitzen). [Donder/Dunder and Blixen/Blixem translate in Dutch to the expression "thunder and lightning."] Baum's own ten reindeer have different names, Flossie and Glossie are Santa's principal reindeer, along with Racer and Pacer, Fearless and Peerless, Ready and Steady, Feckless and Speckless, but those deer are from ancient times, and while Burzee animals may or may not be eternal (it's unclear), it does not follow that they would eternally pull Santa's sleigh, nor does it preclude the idea of other teams of reindeer having that honor. In The Emerald City Mirror #22 story "Santa Claus in Oz" has Vixen pulling the sleigh in 1902, presumably along with Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Comet, Cupid, Donder and Blitzen (Rudolph would not have come along until some time prior to Robert May's 1939 poem), which means that they've been doing it for nearly 80 years. It's unknown how long the time span for pulling a sleigh runs. Given that non-talking reindeer from the Outside World generally only have a lifespan of 15-18 years, it seems likely that all of Santa's reindeer are from Burzee or the Laughing Valley.





 A Kidnapped Santa Claus

The sixth Borderlands of Oz Book (Book #66 of the Supreme Seventy-Five)


Synopsis: Forthcoming


Continuity Notes

Dating: Date is uncertain, but appears to be not very long after The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus.







The Enchanted Island of Yew

The fourth Borderlands of Oz Book (Book #64 of the Supreme Seventy-Five)


Synopsis: When a fairy suffering from ennui decides she needs a change, she has a mortal princess transform her into a mortal youth named Prince Marvel.


Continuity Notes

Civilization: It's known that Yew is not a deathless land, as civilization creeps in and renders it akin to lands in the Outside World. Nevertheless, it has been rendered part of the Nonestican lands, and the characters of The Royal Explorers of Oz take a trip to Yew, if only to discover that its original rulers (from the book) are long since deceased. The Red Rogue, however, may still be alive, and is known to have begotten the Pirates of Dawna. It might be assumed that the Kingdom of Twi likely still exists as a magical realm hidden behind the wall of thorns, but this is not certain.


Dating: The date is uncertain, but the story makes two chronological references, first to The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, second to the life of St. George, who died in 303 CE. This dates the story to anytime after the 4th century. The names of some of the characters (Baron Merd, Merna and Helda) suggest a connection to a Germanic, Anglo-Saxon peoples, as well as Latin influence (Auriel, Plenta, Sesely).




Lost Histories from the Royal Librarian

Author's Notes: This was featured as a companion booklet to The Lost Tales of Oz.

Lurline and the First Fairy Queen of Oz


Continuity notes:

Lulea and the Fairy Kingdoms of Oz


Continuity notes:

A Brief History of Oz in the 12th and 13th Centuries

The Adventures of Munch Kenny and Gil Cain


Continuity notes:

The Coming of the Marauders


Continuity notes:





The Banishment of Faleero

Available to read here


Author's Notes: The Oz books contain mentions of several fairies, but, with one exception, all of them are good. This one exception is Faleero, who was first mentioned in Ruth Plumly Thompson's Kabumpo in Oz, where she is described as the thousand-year-old, ugly Princess of Follensby Forest, who spends all of her time gathering sticks. In The Purple Prince of Oz, Faleero transforms the King, Queen, Prince, and Princesses of Pumperdink, and marries the King's brother Kettywig. At the end of this story, she is punished by Queen Ozma. Anyway, I had the idea that Faleero was a fallen fairy (you know, like Lucifer is a fallen angel), and this story explains Faleero's banishment from the fairy community.


Story: Curiosity gets the better of Filera, who as she grows older, continues to act in ways that are irresponsible. As an adult fairy, she stumbles upon the home of a witch, learns black magic, and uses it to cause a volcanic eruption that buries a village in Thumbumbia and a hurricane that destroys a coastal city in Macvelt. At this, Lurline takes away Filera's powers and name, and banishes her to Follensby Forest, where she will age.


Continuity Notes

Dating: The date of 1668 begins after Filera becomes an adult in the story, and is based on the notion that Lurline imposed a 250 year punishment upon her (during this same period, Roquat comes to power and Scowleyow begins to train his army), after which she would be free once more to utilize her powers. It may have been thought that by then she would have changed her ways, and for a time she may have. What causes her to return to black magic is not known. Her actions in The Purple Prince of Oz indicate that she grew bitter and harsh, but there seem to be other aspects of Pumperdink that exacerbate her actions in that story. 


Sister: No mention is made of Falingo, Faleero's fairy sister, and it may be that she later joined Faleero.


Surrounding Countries: This story references Baum's "Queen of Quok" and "The Runaway Shadows."








The Lost Queen of Oz

Synopsis and Continuity Notes: forthcoming






The Triumph of the Wicked Witch of the West

Synopsis: Forthcoming


Continuity Notes "The Triumph of the Wicked Witch" takes place some time after Glen Ingersoll's yet unpublished The Lost Queen of Oz, in which the Wicked Witch of the West deposed the former Queen Lana of Topaz City in the Winkie Country, an event that sent Mr. Tinker to the moon. With the symbol of rule in the West, Topaz City, destroyed, and the immediate royal line enchanted, rulership went next in line to King Willinos and Queen Neldra, whose castle in the eastern part of the country was soon paid a visit by the Wicked Witch. Following these events, Princess PieRita became defacto ruler for a short time until being forced to abdicate (in The Astonishing Tale of the Gump of Oz.)






The Gillikin Witches of Oz

Synopsis: Forthcoming


Continuity Notes







Reddy and Willing: The Adventures of Jair in Oz

Available to read here


Synopsis: Forthcoming


Continuity Notes

Author's note: "This story was one I'd been thinking of for years before actually getting around to writing it, because I felt the Reddies' back story in JACK PUMPKINHEAD was just begging for more explanation."


Dating: As per the author, "The seventeenth or eighteenth century would work, I think.  There needs to be enough time in between this story and JACK PUMPKINHEAD for three generations of Reddies to pass, but some of the barons could have had short reigns. "The Solitary Sorceress of Oz" has Glinda coming to Oz in the sixteenth century. Given that the Jinxland witches are alive at this time, and that Blinkie acknowledges having looked up to Mombi when she was a child, she is likely younger than Mombi. On the other hand, Mombi used the form of an old witch even at a young age in order to frighten people and make them underestimate her, so this may not be as much a clue to dating. What matters is that Mombi is in power while Blinkie is young, else she wouldn't be aware of her.


The Jinxland Witches: This story reveals that there had been a fourth sister, the youngest, Bleakie, who left her elder witch sisters behind to become the lover of the wizard Jakgar, eventually leaving Oz altogether. Blinkie at this time in history has both eyes, as according to Donald Abbott's The Amber Flute of Oz, she lost her eye during the backfiring of a spell in a battle with Glinda in 1871.






From Gold Hill to Butterfield

Synopsis: Forthcoming


Continuity Notes Forthcoming






Oz Reimagined

The Cobbler of Oz

Synopsis: Forthcoming


Continuity Notes Unlike the other stories in this anthology, "The Cobbler in Oz" is historically harmonious, dealing with an untold chapter in the history of the Silver Shoes. The date of the story is uncertain, though it must take place prior to Dorothy's arrival in Oz, and some time after the Wizard's arrival.


There is a continuity-glitch, as the Wicked Witch of the West never owned the Silver Shoes. So, the reader is forced to either:


a) Substitute the Wicked Witch of the East.

b) Envision a scenario in which the Wicked Witch of the West temporarily owned (stole) the Silver Shoes. In The Magic Umbrella of Oz, her shoes were stolen, so it's a plausible scenario.






How the Wizard Came to Oz

The True Origin of the Wizard of Oz

History: Three different versions of this story exist, the original "How the Wizard Came to Oz and What He Did There," from Oziana 1976, is the first. This story was expanded in 1991 under the Emerald City Press banner, and simply called How the Wizard Came to Oz. Finally, in 2016, forty years after the original was written, the author released a serialized webstrip online, now re-titled, How the Wizard Came to Oz: The True Origin of the Wizard of Oz. Each version features considerable differences, but it is this third version that is the most expansive and harmonious, continuity-wise, of the three. The Royal Timeline of Oz deems it the canonical one, and this is what is detailed here. For a look at the others, click on their respective links above.


Synopsis: Strips 1-9: Oscar Diggs uses his ventriloquist act with his dummy Walnut to flirt with an audience member. When she goes to his tent, he tells her that his father had been a con-artist who went too far when he tried to rip off the city of New York. Before he could be sent to an orphanage, he escaped and joined the circus at the age of 10. After she leaves, his friend, circus-owner Maxwell asks what's troubling Oscar, and he admits that he's bored being a ventriloquist, even if he is the best since Sound-Off Simpson, his mentor, passed. The next day, Maxwell shows him his new balloon. Oscar takes to the idea and, though still performing his ventriloquist act, becomes a balloonist.


Strips 10-17: A storm comes from the north, knocking Oscar's gondola about until he hits his head on a metal support and passes out. He dreams of his debut and the advice Sound-Off gave him of envisioning himself a far greater magician than he really was, willing the audience to believe along with him. He warns him only to not promise more than he can actually deliver. Oscar awakens as the balloon passes over the Deadly Desert. Hours later, the balloon descends into a city made of yellow crystal. The citizens see the letters OZ on the balloon and begin to wonder if the prophecy of Gorg the Soothsayer is coming true of a chosen one who will come from the sky to save them from the tyrant. Old Azor said it would be a girl, but the people believe it has to be a mighty wizard. They greet him and inform him that he's in the Winkie Country of Oz.


Strips 18-32: In a tower above the city, Lady Glinda visits Lady Morella to discuss peace terms between their countries to end the long war that's plagued their countries since Morella's been on the throne. She's interrupted by a maid and departs to see the disturbance. Oscar wonders aloud who the silly woman is, and she announces herself as the Witch of the West and ruler of the Winkies. She sends her elite guards after him, but he uses the balloon's hot air to knock them down. As they recover, he warns them that he'll unleash an invisible army of lions, tigers and bears, and uses his ventriloquist skills to fool them into believing it. After they flee, the Winkies cheer him. Looking on from above, Glinda's impressed. Lady Morella blows on her Silver Whistle and summons magical black wolves to attack him. Glinda determines to help, and when the Wizard uses his ventriloquism to summon the roar of a dragon, Glinda makes an illusory dragon appear. The Shadow Wolves and Lady Morella depart, and the Winkies proclaim the Wizard their new ruler. Atop a nearby mountain, the Wicked Witch promises to have her revenge


Strips 33-40: Lady Morella visits her sister Lady Malvonia, ruler and Witch of the East, in her Blue Tower, requesting her aid and that of the Silver Shoes to defeat him. Lady Malvonia explains that although the Shoes can transport her anywhere, and even construct a palace (as it did her Blue Tower), she's unable to get them to harm living creatures. She then tells her that up in the Gillikin Country, in the midst of a jungle stands the castle of Gayelette and Quelala. Earlier the winged monkeys had dropped him in a lake, angering Gayelette so much that she made them slaves to a magical Golden Cap. Although Quelala has hidden the cap, Lady Morella departs to find it in the hopes that with control of the winged monkeys she'll depose the Wizard. The Wizard, meanwhile, presides over the case of a farmer who was scheduled to be executed for protesting Lady Morella's intent to use his farm to build her new summer palace. The Wizard frees him and restores his farm to him. Glinda shows up to remark on how well he handled that case, and he in turn tells her that he's closed the torture chamber and freed everyone from the dungeon. He's also happy to sign a peace treaty with the Quadlings. Glinda says she will always have a friend in her.


Strips 41-53: A lion tells his cub that he senses something evil approaching. When Lady Morella arrives, demanding he move, as she's spent six months searching for her prize, the lion announces that he's the Sentinel of Quelala and guards the pass. When he orders her to depart, she turns him into stone. The lion's upset cub runs away in fear as the witch laughs. Reaching into the hollow of a long-dead tree, Lady Morella finds the Golden Cap, puts in on, and recites the magic words. Soon the winged monkeys arrive and their king asks what she requires. Elsewhere, in the Quadling Country, Glinda gets a message from her Great Aunt Locasta, the Good Witch of the North. She informs her that her wicked cousin Morella has been skulking around her country and has retrieved the Golden Cap. Locasta then teaches her a spell for dealing with them. The winged monkeys attack Winkie City, throwing citizens into nets. The Wizard tries to flee, but is caught. Using a trick he learned from Chinese acrobats, he escapes into his balloon. Using her evil eye, she locates him and sends the winged monkeys in pursuit. Glinda uses the spell Locasta taught her to summon up a tornado and send the winged monkeys back to their land. Lady Morella angrily sits on her throne and destroys the peace treaty she finds there.


Strips 54-59: The next day, the Wizard's balloon alights upon a land where the homes are made of giant emeralds. He's informed by a young man with short green whiskers that he's in the center of Oz, a neutral state where people from all four quadrants can come and safely trade. No witch has ever lived there. The people hail him as the Wizard of Oz. When a kalidah attacks, Oscar borrows a cane to attack it, but its the emerald bullet from the lad with the green whiskers that brings the creature down. He introduces himself as Omby Amby. The Wizard invites him to work for him.


Strips 60-79: When the guards of Lady Malvonia bring her signs from Munchkin rebels decrying her as a tyrant, she sends them into the woods after them, noting that there were no rebels until the Wizard arrived. She summons an entity called Scarecrow and asks that he deliver a message to the Wizard. He departs, and when a sable tiger attacks him in the woods, the tiger loses. Meanwhile, the Wizard is inspecting the fifty-foot high walls that will keep out kalidahs, and Omby Amby tells him the people have never worked so hard or happily before. He shows him the magnificent Emerald City from the outside. A week later, Lady Malvonia casts a spell on Glinda preventing her from protecting the Wizard. The Scarecrow approaches the Wizard in his throne room, and reveals itself to be nightshade crows, of which one scratch causes death. But having been prepared for treachery, the Wizard had set up funhouse mirrors, trapping the birds inside a cage that drops from above. When Malvonia discovers her failure, her sister Morella arrives by broom, offering that they join forces using mother's old witches' brew recipe, which she attained before their mother melted to death in a sudden rainstorm.


Strips 80-97: Aunt Locasta visits Glinda and removes the blocking spell that Malvonia had placed on her, informing her that the east and west sisters have joined forces against the Wizard. Together they plot to stop them. In the Emerald City, meanwhile, Jellia Jamb asks Omby Amby about the Wizard, whose not emerged from the throne room in three days. In the dark forest at midnight, the two wicked witches brew up ingredients in a cauldron and utter an incantation, conjuring up a giant Deaths-head Spider, a skull-faced, horned, fanged creature that can shoot fiery webs. With a magical dart, they send a letter to the Wizard. When Omby Amby brings it into the throne room, he's shocked to find a giant head addressing him with the voice of the Wizard! When he leaves, the Wizard is pleased at his construction of the head, made in the likeness of his former dummy Walnut. The letter warns him that the witches are coming. Just then he receives a card from Madam Magda offering magic in a tent outside the gates of the Emerald City. As Lady Morella instructs the Winkie and Munchkin soldiers, Lady Malvonia uses the Silver Slippers to create a road of yellow brick leading to the Emerald City.


Strips 97-140: Three days later, as the army of the witches marches towards the city, Glinda places a deadly poppy field on their path, putting the entire army to sleep. While the witches burn a path through it, the Wizard approaches Madam Magda, who's actually Glinda in disguise. She gives him three pearls. Outside, the witches and their army arrive. Malvonia creates a magical blue griffin. When the creature attacks, Oscar pushes a button on his cane, turning it into a sword and using his fencing lessons to fight. But when he makes the first cut, the wound is instantly healed and Oscar's blade knocked away. Omby Amby's shot stuns it momentarily, and when Oscar hears Glinda's voice, he hurls the pulsing green pearl at the griffin, reducing it to ash. Morella then transforms her umbrella into a monstrous serpent, which uses its tail to send Omby Amby flying, and shoots lasers out of its eyes. The blast knocks the pearls out of Oscar's grasp, while its tail picks him. Omby Amby recovers. Refusing to shoot humans, he fends off the witches' guards with his rifle's stock. As the serpent prepares to devour him, Oscar presses another button on the cane, shooting black smoke in its face. Grabbing the next pulsing pearl, he throws it into the creatures maw, causing it to explode and turn back into Morella's umbrella. Finally, the witches summon the Deaths-Head spider. The creature asks if the Wizard is his target, and when she agrees, he shoots flaming webs at him. He flees, but wonders why his remaining pearl isn't glowing. The creature prepares to make its kill, but he hears Glinda's voice as the pearl cracks open, bathing him in green gas, and turning him into a giant that towers over the spider. The fight proceeds, until Oscar uses his cane as a bat and knocks him into the air, where the creature explodes. He turns his attention to the army, who scatter in fear. The witches combine their power to engulf Oscar in witches fire, but it only tickles him. Sensing their defeat, Malvonia uses her Silver Shoes to whisk them away. Oscar returns to his normal size as the Ozites rush over to congratulate him. Later on, Madam Magda approaches Oscar in the throne room and reveals her true self, explaining that for them to see him as a true wizard she couldn't be seen helping him. Although the Wicked Witch of the West remains a threat, Glinda relates a prophecy of one who will fall from the sky who will take her life. He jokes that if he ever meets her, he'll send her straight to her door. Glinda recommends that he remain out of sight for his own safety.


Continuity Notes

Cowardly Lion: This story, along with The Way of the Lion, shows the Cowardly Lion as a cub, and the way in which he lost his father, who'd been appointed the Sentinel of Quelala to guard the Golden Cap that Quelala's wife, Gayelette had created to control the Winged Monkeys. Lady Morella, the Wicked Witch of the West, turns the Cowardly Lion's father into stone.


Dating of the Wizard's Arrival in Oz: The Wizard's first came to Oz in 1871. The Wizard states in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz that he ruled in Oz "for many years" [p. 195], which indicates that he had been in Oz for some time prior to Dorothy's arrival. Hot-air ballooning did not take off in circuses and traveling fairs until 1871, months after Leon Gambetta's highly publicized balloon escape from the Prussian armies in Paris to Southern France, after which ballooning sprang up overnight across circuses and fairs (for more information, see this article). After only a few short years, however, solo balloon shows were no longer trendy or novel, and circuses had added acrobats to spice things up. A point has been made that the Wizard’s city of origin, Omaha, was not established until 1854, thereby limiting Oscar Diggs' age, however, he may have been born in the region of Omaha prior to it being officially named such, particularly since Omaha is the name of the Native American tribe that lived in that region, and it may have been called Omaha from as early as 1813 when Manuel Lisa established a large trading post there.


Dating of the Narrative: Although the strips' current dates are somewhat off, they'll be corrected by the time of publication. The following should be seen as the correct years: Strips 1-59: 1871 [The Wizard arrives by balloon in the Winkie Country, where he's makes enemies of the Wicked Witch of the West]. Strips 60-140: 1892 [This is preceded by the witches destroying the former capital in Ozmara and Oscar moving into his newly built palace, events that are told in Oz and the Three Witches].


Glinda: Unbeknownst to readers until now, Glinda played a significant, if concealed, role in Oscar Diggs becoming the Wizard of Oz and fending off the attacks of the Wicked Witch rulers of the East and West. Glinda refers to Locasta as "Aunt," but by the same token she calls the East and West witches "cousin." While the latter is likely best understood in terms of magical relations, Locasta does appear to be Glinda's aunt.


Golden Cap: As per Oziana 1998's "The Gauds of Oz," the Golden Cap had been made by Master Jeweler Joyero for Queen Gayelette, who then ruled the Gillikins. She traded him half the kingdom for his masterpiece, but both came to regret the decision, and after Gayelette enchanted the cap she traded it back from him. The Wicked Witch of the West traded the former Winkie King Winkeslas' firestone for it. In this story, it is shown to have been hidden in a tree. It can be understood that this tree was on the property of Joyero, who had been instructed to keep the Golden Cap hidden. The witch's offer was too good for him to refuse and he revealed its location. The Wicked Witch of the West goes on to use the Golden Cap to command the Winged Monkeys twice in How the Wizard Came to Oz, once in Hugh Pendexter III's Oz and the Three Witches, and once in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. To resolve this discrepancy, the Royal Timeline of Oz suggests that at the end of this story, the witch gave the Cap to her sister, who used it three times for her own purposes (perhaps to fend off rivals or enemies), after which she gave it back to her sister. Most likely they had a magical means of cheating the system, and had Dorothy not killed both witches, they could have given it back and forth to one another indefinitely, keeping the Winged Monkeys permanently enslaved.


Oscar's Origins: For the first time, we learn about Oscar Diggs' family. He was raised by a con-artist who used his son as part of his tricks to steal and cheat. But when he tried to pull a scam to rip off New York City, he went too far and was arrested. Oscar managed to escape, and by the ripe age of 10 had joined the circus, where he trained under master ventriloquist "Sound-Off" Simpson. There is no mention of his father, so either she died or left her husband some time after giving birth to Oscar.


Sequel: The adventures of the Wizard in Oz continue in How the Wizard Saved Oz and How the Wizard Came to Oz II: Dorothy.


Winkie City: This is the first story to name the city where the Wizard landed and for a short time (six months) ruled. Lady Morella, Wicked Witch of the West, lived for a time in a castle in the city with a tower above all the other buildings. When the Wizard defeated her upon his arrival, she went to her sister Lady Malvonia in the Munchkin Country before traveling north to the Gillikin Country to gain the Golden Cap. Six months after her defeat, she returned with the winged monkeys to take back her castle in the city, driving out the Wizard. Twenty-one years later, she was driven out of her castle and city again when she was defeated by the Wizard a second time. This time she had a new castle constructed (or taken over) northeast of her former home. It is unknown if her former castle was the ancestral home of her family. When the Tin Woodman came to rule the Winkie Country, he briefly moved into her castle before having his own constructed (The Tin Castle of Oz), though whether it was the one in Winkie City or the one closer to the border (see the Oz map) is unknown. It is possible Lady Morella had Winkie City destroyed in punishment of their acceptance of the Wizard, which may explain why it never appears again in story.


Witch Names: This is the first story to give proper names to the Wicked Witches of the East and West, naming the East Witch Lady Malvonia, and the West Witch Lady Morella. The Living House of Oz, however, gives the West Witch from a parallel Oz that Ozma created in Paradox in Oz, the name Mordra, and it can be assumed that it's the same name she'd have had in the primary Oz because Glinda has the same name in both dimensions. This is understood in the context of royal names (or court names) verses family names. Multiple names is common for royals throughout history. In other words, when the two witches were born, the one who would eventually rule the west was named Mordra. But when she came of age (or took the throne of the Winkies), she was heralded as Lady Morella. The baby who would one day rule the east was given the name Malva at birth, but when she came of age (or took the throne), she was heralded as Lady Malvonia. Other titles included Wise Woman of West and Wise Woman of the East, though the citizens might have used old slang terms for them in secret, such as Gingemma (or Gingema), which means witch, for Malvonia, and Bastinda, which means to hit with a stick or staff. See the Appendices: Names and Relations of the Wicked Witches of Oz.




How the Wizard Saved Oz

Synopsis: When the Queen of the Field Mice asks the Wizard for his help in finding her subjects, the Wizard declines, fearful that he'll be revealed as a phony. The Queen suggests that he doesn't want to help because he's a fake, so to keep her silent, he agrees to assist her. She explains that they'd attended the birthday party of the King of the Winged Monkeys. She left for a time, and when she returned, the mice were all gone. All she found was a tattered cloth, which the Wizard examines. It was made in the City of Lavendoria by Ohbo the tailor.


Looking to keep his travels a secret, the Wizard pushes an emerald on the throne, which moves it, revealing a flight of spiral steps leading underground. There, they enter a large cavern and travel past a narrow ridge above an abyss, beneath which runs a river that purportedly goes to the center of the earth. Coming to a tunnel, it leads to a large emerald-encrusted cavern where the Queen of the Field Mice inquires about a large mahogany throne that sits there. The Wizard explains that it's the Throne of Pastoria, who he'd heard was transformed into a bird when he drank what he thought was water from a woman (who was a witch) that he met one day while strolling in the woods. After the people built the Emerald City, they presented the Wizard with the throne. Yet, the former king's half-brother was a powerful military leader named General Riskitt, who coveted power, knowing that whomever sat upon it would be seen as the Rightful Ruler. He attempted to get the people to overthrow the Wizard, but widespread dislike for the general caused his plan of revolt to fail. He next attempted to steal the throne itself, but was caught. The Wizard banished him from the Emerald City, and hid the throne in the tunnels underneath the Royal Palace.


The Wizard soon leads them up a spiraling tunnel that goes to the surface. At the top, he taps his walking stick, and a section of marble opens up leading them outside the Emerald City and closing behind them. After many hours of walking, the Wizard, using his compass, leads them to the Gillikin Country. A Gillikin farmer tells them that Lavendoria is situated on the other side of the Mauve Mountains, which are inhabited by dangerous creatures. After some time and food, they head to the mountains, where they climb up to a canyon that leads through the mountains. At the canyon top, they encountered an unusual creature called the Whoozis, which has a scaly body, long neck, hippopotamus head, and peacock tail. The creature approaches to eat them, but the Wizard threatens him with an invisible dragon who will protect them. As the creature doesn't believe, him, he uses his ventriloquist skills to produce fearsome roars and cries, causing the Whoozis to run away.


Coming across a ditch, the Wizard produces a rope, which he turns into a lasso. After some throws, he secures it to the other side, but when the Queen reveals that she's afraid of heights, the Wizard puts her inside his coat pocket, and using his tightrope walking skills he learned in the circus, he crosses the distance. Once on the other side, however, he's accosted by the Whatzis, which has the body of a tiger, the head of an elephant, and the wings of an eagle. The Wizard again attempts his invisible dragon trick, but the creature isn't fooled, as he can smell nothing nearby, and besides which, he isn't afraid of dragons, having slain some in the past. But when the Queen of the Field Mice pops out her head, the creature flees in terror.


Nighttime by the time they exit the Mauve Mountains, they decide to sleep. Leaving the Queen in an orchard, the Wizard crosses to the light of what he hopes will be a welcoming farmhouse, but it turns out to be a strange wooden cottage shaped in the form of a jack-o'-lantern. He hears odd singing, and the door opens to reveal an unpleasant-looking woman who identifies herself as Mombi. She offers him a drink, but fearful of the woman and place, he declines and departs back to the orchard.


The next morning, after a breakfast of fruit, they come to Lavendoria. [Here, the Wogglebug section should be skipped.] But they discover that Ohbo the tailor is on vacation in the Munchkin Country. Worse, the Wizard discovers that General Riskitt is there, and sees that a torn piece from his purple cape is the very same cloth the Queen of the Field Mice had discovered. Deciding to follow General Riskitt, whose riding atop a unicorn, the general leads them back to the pumpkin-shaped cottage of Mombi. The Queen of the Field Mice goes to spy, and discovers that Mombi had given Riskitt a sleeping potion, which he used to abduct her people. With a machine Mombi created, the general intends to use the now chained mice to power the machine, which will drain the magic of Oz into General Riskitt, making him all-powerful She also learns that it was General Riskitt who put Mombi up to enchanting the former King Pastoria. Now, with the power he'll gain, he intends to depose the Wizard. When the machine fails to work, however, Mombi consults her Answer Book, which tells her that it's missing one mouse, who is right there in the cottage.


Whem Mombi discovers her, the Queen flees to the Wizard to inform him of everything she learned, but Mombi emerges from her cottage in the form of a griffin, and snatches up the field mouse Queen, while General Riskitt confronts the Wizard. Although the Wizard tells him he does not wish to hurt him, the General lunges with his sword. Using his walking stick and the lessons he learned from Sharpy at the circus, the Wizard sidesteps and sends the general headlong into a tree, knocking him out. But when he goes to the front door of Mombi's cottage, a trapdoor opens up under his feet and he falls into her cellar.


With the final field mouse in place, Mombi begins her machine. General Riskitt bursts into the hut, making demands, so Mombi explains to him that whomever wears the ring will receive the magic being sucked out of Oz. Then she puts the ring on herself! She suddenly transforms into a young woman, explaining that she deceived him in order to get him to purchase the equipment she needed to build the machine, and will now become Queen of Oz. Meanwhile, using a trick he learned at the circus from an escaped artist, the Great Spandini, the Wizard uses his stickpin to pick the cellar door lock, and enters Mombi's storeroom, where he finds and pockets a growth powder. He sneaks into the room where the field mice are being kept prisoner of the machine, and sprinkles the growth powder on them. When Riskitt and Mombi spot him, she flings him across the room with the wave of her hand, but he utters the spell that turns the mice giant for an hour. This disrupts the machine, which begins to sputter and spark. The Wizard and mice escape just before the machine explodes and blows the roof off the cottage. Mombi barely escapes herself, and, returning to the form of a griffin, only now with singed wings and black fur, she flies off.


The Wizard's trip back home is uneventful, as the creatures of the Mauve Mountains had heard of his defeat of Mombi and let him be. [Here, the Wizard's visit to Mombi's hut should be skipped and considered non-canon.] Passing again through his secret underground tunnel, the Wizard is suddenly accosted by General Riskitt who throws an escape-proof net over him! Suddenly, the Queen of the Field Mice orders her people to attack. She frees the Wizard, explaining that they'd spotted Riskitt atop his unicorn on the way to the Emerald City. The Wizard attempts to arrest the fallen general, but he escapes into the dark second cavern, and although the Wizard warns him, he trips and falls into the underground river, which takes him far away. The Queen of the Field Mice and her subjects are welcome to stay in the Palace and do so for a week before returning home. The Wizard then returns to seclusion.


Continuity Notes

Contradictions: In order to keep How the Wizard Saved Oz in continuity, some pages have to be excised. These include the too-early appearance of the Wogglebug, in Chapter 6, and the mention and appearance of Tip in Chapters 11 and 12. The idea that the author puts forward, that these are the three visits the Wizard makes to Mombi, has to be in error, as is his conception that Mombi abducted Princess Ozma from Pastoria when she transformed him into a bird. For example, Baum notes in The Marvelous Land in Oz that it was the Wizard who gave baby Ozma into Mombi's keeping, and Thompson notes in The Lost King of Oz that Mombi transformed Pastoria into a befuddled prisoner of Blankenburg. These few pages are thus excised on the Royal Timeline, and should be considered non-canon, allowing the rest of the story to occur as told. This change, then, would point to the first time the Wizard met Mombi, but it was an unintentional meeting, and should be noted as being before the three visits he makes to her hut, leading to his giving baby Ozma in her charge, all of which is detailed in Oz and the Three Witches.


Dating: Although the book is ambiguously dated to the time before Dorothy arrives in 1898, the excision of contradictory material (see above) allows it to be better dated to the time before the Wizard brings baby Ozma to Mombi, but after he's begun living in the Emerald City, namely 1892.


Field Mice: According to Mombi's Answer Book, there are 301 field mice living in Oz at this time, all of whom are subject to the Queen of the Field Mice, and all of whom were abducted by General Riskitt. If this seems like a small number, it likely does not include all the many other types of mice, rat, or rodent in Oz. By the time of Oz and the Three Witches, the Wizard appears to know of at least some mice living in or near the Palace, as he uses some for a magic trick, and by the time of Ruggedo in Oz, there are thousands of mice living in their own city in the Palace (with another city elsewhere in Oz). The Wizard seems unaware of this, which likely means that some of the Queen's subjects decided to stay behind in the Palace at this time and start a new colony.


General Riskitt: Noted to be the half-brother of King Pastoria II, Riskitt is the younger offspring of King Pastoria I with another woman, which would mean that he's a bastard. Nevertheless, he grew to be like his angry and wicked father (in the former king's enchanted form) and somehow rose to the rank of general. What his relationship was like to his father and half-brother is unknown, but it's noted that he's not popular with the people, who likely are aware of his violent nature, and who were likely disposed towards the friendly Pastoria II. This did not stop his ambitions following the disappearance of his father and brother to become king, though it did thwart his plans of having the people revolt against the Wizard. While the book notes that he didn't have support in this, it seems more likely that he had *some* support, otherwise, he'd have had no reason to institute such a plan. It's also revealed that it was General Riskitt himself who petitioned Mombi to get rid of his half-brother Pastoria II. In doing this, Mombi earned his trust and later tricked him into financing the magic-draining machine that would give her the power she wanted to defeat the East and West Witches and become Queen of Oz. General Riskitt's disappearance down the underground river likely means that he returns again in an as-yet untold story.


Magic-Draining Machine: Mombi likely stole the plans for the magic-draining machine from Dr. Pipt. Although the text says only that she took it from the "Crooked Magician who lives on Lonely Mountain" [76], two points make it appear that this is more likely to be Dr. Pipt than Dr. Nikidik. For one, she says that he intended to destroy the plans for the machine, fearing it would prove too dangerous in the wrong hands. This concern for the greater good is much more in keeping with Dr. Pipt at this time. Dr. Nikidik would likely have used the machine himself had he the plans for it. Also, the Lonely Mountain is noted in The Blue Witch of Oz as being in the Munchkin Country, where Dr. Pipt lives (Dr. Nikidik resided in the Gillikin Country.)


Mombi: Although unknown to the author at this time, several aspects of Mombi's behavior in this story can be reinterpreted in light of her true nature as a Yookoohoo ("The Gillikin Witches of Oz" and Oziana 2015's "The Malevolent Mannequin in Oz,") including her transformation into a griffin (which she does in The Marvelous Land in Oz) and a young woman, which is her actual form as Yookoohoos stopped aging after Lurline's 1743 enchantment. What the machine may have given her is the ability to transform without having to rely on her Yookoohoo talisman. What it would have given her is dominion over the Wicked Witches of the East and West, who were the real threats to Oz at this time. When the machine is destroyed, Mombi not only loses her Answer Book and some of her potions, but winds up injured in the blast, and her griffin form shows her to have singed wings and blackened fur. It is likely that in this weakened state that she was defeated by Orin, the Good Witch of the North, later in this same year.


Under the Royal Palace: With the push of a hidden emerald on the throne, a passageway underneath the Palace is discovered, along with several caverns. The Wizard says he "designed this passageway myself," [11] though it's not known to what extent. There is diamond-studded tunnel and a large cavern in which gigantic emeralds hang in clusters, and these may be his design. Ruggedo comes to live under the palace for a time (Kabumpo in Oz), though he never discovers the passages leading to the throne, though whether that was because of the maze-like nature of the underground, or because Ozma had it removed is unknown (though why she would do the latter is unknown.)




How the Wizard Came to Oz II: Dorothy

Synopsis: Sequel to How the Wizard Came to Oz: The True Origin of the Wizard of Oz.


Strips 141-164: From her newly constructed castle, the Wicked Witch of the West sends her Shadow Wolves to oppress her people, while her sister in the East uses a robotic soldier to oppress hers. Although he remains in hiding at this time, he often goes out in disguise, such as the time he destroyed the witch's robot soldier. In the Munchkin Country, Lady Malvonia approaches a magician, who she tasked with creating the perfect soldier that does not eat or sleep. He credits two Munchkins for assembling this being, but claims to have brought him to life. When she sees it is a wobbly Scarecrow, she's unimpressed, but wonders if he could make more. He asserts he could, but just then his shed of magical equipment explodes. They discover a note from the Wizard saying he's watching. Posing as a guard nearby, Oscar slips away happy in the knowledge there's a spy in her midst who informs him of her dealings. He enters his balloon, which can become invisible when necessary, thanks to Glinda, and flies back to the Emerald City, noting an approaching storm. Glinda meanwhile, keeps the Shadow Wolves from crossing into the Quadling Country. Morella arrives, threatening that she won't stop until she's had her revenge of the Wizard and his supporters, and Glinda concludes that her hatred's driven her mad. The Wicked Witch of the West, as she refers to herself now, takes a small spider and turns her giant-sized. Glinda uses her magic to lift her into the air and hurl her into a far-away forest. But the giant spider was only a diversion. Kalidahs now stalk amongst the Shadow Wolves. Forced to stay late after school for having punched Billy Gulch after he pulled Toto's tail, Dorothy notes a storm coming and runs home. Too late, Dorothy is caught in her house as the tornado flies it away. Lady Malvonia, meanwhile, orders the farmers to take the Scarecrow to some cornfield, and banishes the magician from before her. After ordering her guards to keep searching for the Wizard, she looks up to see a house falling on her. The Wizard returns to the Emerald City, but hears a strange voice asking for help, and retires. Morella prepares to spring her trap on Glinda, but the sorceress surprises her with a hidden army of her own. As they prepare to fight, the Wicked Witch feels the death of her sister and flies off. Her creatures scatter.


Strips 165-: Dorothy's amazed at the beauty of the place they landed, but when Toto chases after a bird, and the bird tell him to mind his manners, Dorothy knows she's far from home. Having seen the house fall on the witch, the Munchkin magician believes the girl is a powerful sorceress and informs two fellow Munchkins he's summoned help.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Strips 141-End: 1898 (these are events surrounding The Wonderful Wizard of Oz)


Munchkin Magician: A low-level magician who was apparently acquainted enough with the Good Witch of the North to be able to summon her when Dorothy's house squashed the Wicked Witch of the East. He is one of the three Munchkins (along with Boq) to have greeted Dorothy upon her arrival.


Scarecrow origins: In order for this story to fit into the events told of the Scarecrow's origins in Cryptic Conversations in a Cornfield, it should be understood that the Wicked Witch of the East was testing the magician to see if he was authentic and how powerful he was, and either subdue or eliminate him if a threat. It was she who brought the Scarecrow to life earlier in secret to see what he'd do. When he took credit for it, she knew he was lying, and was in the midst of testing him further (asking him if he could make more), when his shed was set on fire by the Wizard, who was taking no chances. Knowing that the flimsy Scarecrow was no real use to her as a soldier, she dismisses him, and the Munchkin farmers who made him put him back on his beanpole. Figuring the magician tp be a fraud, she dismissed him as well.





The Magical Monarch of Mo (a.k.a A New Wonderland)

The first Borderlands of Oz Book (Book #61 of the Supreme Seventy-Five)


History: The first book that can be called a "Borderlands of Oz" book, The Magical Monarch of Mo is the earliest full-length fantasy-work that L. Frank Baum wrote, in 1896. Baum later crossed Mo and Oz in The Scarecrow of Oz.


Continuity Notes

More Mo: Several characters from this book appear in later post-Baum Oz stories, e.g., Princess Truella appears in The Royal Explorers of Oz quadrilogy. The sorceress Maetta was used by Baum in his Wogglebug play. The Outsiders from Oz provides a sequel of sorts, and brings back Scowleyow and his repaired Cast-Iron Man.


Nighttime: As regards the existence of a night-time in Mo, The Scarecrow of Oz contradicts the authorial claim in The Magical Monarch of Mo by indicating that there is nighttime (which the text of Magical Monarch itself seems to suggest). As regards the dog Prince, Michael Patrick Hearn suggests (in The Annotated Wizard of Oz) that the "country beyond the mountains and the desert," from where he arrives might have been Oz, which would explain why he's so comfortable conversing with humans. How he crossed the desert remains the same mystery as to how the Wise Donkey crossed it to Oz.


Outside World: Although Mo must be in the Nonestic since those characters come from there to Oz, the giant Hartilaf (who lives in the adjacent valley from the king) makes a relatively short trip from Mo to Alaska to hunt (he's also able to access South America with ease). Either magic is involved in the journey, or there is a bridge to these areas of the Outside World in Mo, and may explain how the land's human residents arrived there.


Phunnyland: Although the original book title was A New Wonderland to capitalize on the Adventures of Alice in Wonderland craze, Mo was originally called Phunnyland. Phunnyland is also name-checked in The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, which may indicate that that name is what those who live outside of the land call it, whereas as residents refer to it as Mo. This is what it's called when Trot, Cap'n Bill and Button-Bright end up there.







Dot and Tot of Merryland

The second Borderlands of Oz Book (Book #62 of the Supreme Seventy-Five)


Synopsis: The titular characters end up in an odd fairyland divided into seven sections, including a valley of clowns, dolls and cats. They meet the Queen of the realm (a doll herself) who treats them as guests, and then guides them the rest of the way out of Merryland.


Continuity Notes

Crossover: The Queen of Merryland later shows up at the end of The Road to Oz, which places this country in Nonestica.


Dating: Although not explicitly indicated, the date can be extrapolated from its sequel in Oziana 2014's "Roselawn." Assuming that Dot was seven years old at the time of her adventure in Merryland, and Tot was five or six, and with the understanding the Dot and Tot of Merryland could take place no earlier than 1900, that gives their ages at the time of this story at 26 for Eva/Dot, and 24 for Matthew/Tot at the time of Roselawn, which takes place in 1919. If Dot and Tot of Merryland took place much earlier, they would be considerably older, which doesn't seem to fit with the characterizations and narrative in Roselawn.


Purpose: There is little rhyme or reason as to why Merryland exists. The queen notes that no one from the outside has ever visited it, and it's been guarded for 300 years. Furthermore, she blocks further entrance. There are living toys and rides that wish to be played with that aren't; there are living dolls and clowns that have no one but themselves to entertain. Only the cats seem to be content in this strange world.


Sequels: Merryland is visited again in The Lavender Bear of Oz and the Oziana 2014 story "Lost and Never Found." An older Dot and Tot return in the Oziana 2014 story "Roselawn."






Queen Zixi of Ix

The fifth Borderlands of Oz Book (Book #65 of the Supreme Seventy-Five)


Synopsis: Considered by Baum one of his best books, this more traditionally European fantasy tells the story of brother and sister Bud and Fluff, who after their father dies, enters the kingdom of Noland, whose king has also just died. By virtue of random chance, Bud is crowned king, while his sister is given a Magic Cloak woven by the fairies in Burzee which will grant one wish to any mortal who wears it.


Continuity Notes

Adaptation: This book was first adapted in 1914 by Baum himself in the silent film The Magic Cloak of Oz.


Burzee: The fairy country of Burzee comes from The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, though in that tale, the Queen of the Fairies went unnamed (as opposed to the Queen of the Wood Nymphs whose name is Zurline). Here, she is given the name Lulea (who also appears in the short story "Nelebel's Fairyland").  As several Oz stories have shown Lurline having spent considerable time in Burzee (e.g., The Magic Carpet of Oz), particularly when hiding from her brother Tititi-Hoochoo (The Law of Oz and Other Stories), many have conjectured that the two are one and the same. It may be that Lurline uses the name Lulea to keep her brother from discovering her there, likely with Zurline's permission, as she is the actual ruler there.


Man in the Moon: The Man in the Moon plays a significant role in the story, advising the fairies who the Magic Cloak should go to. This is apparently also not the first time the fairies have summoned him forth to aid them in a matter. It's unknown who this, but is clearly some kind of cosmic/celestial being.


Queen Zixi of Ix: She is here listed as being 683 years old, though she appears to everyone's eyes as a beautiful 16 year old. She is noted as a good witch who rules her people well, though she cannot disguise her true appearance in a mirror (which is why none are kept around). She has fought and won a hundred wars in her time. Prior to the events of this book, her kingdom and Noland were not on good terms, though no details explain why.


Roly-Rogues: Nothing is known of the history of the Roly-Rogues who live atop a plateau on the highest mountain bordering Noland, save that their name is a nickname. Their given name by Great Ak is the Rogues of Ro Land. Ages ago they defeated the gnoles (gnolls) of Gnole Land, which is the original name of Noland.


Queen Zixi, Bud and Fluff make an appearance in Baum's The Road to Oz and subsequent appearances in other books. Characters from The Silver Princess in Oz visit Ix.







John Dough and the Cherub

The seventh Borderlands of Oz Book (Book #67 of the Supreme Seventy-Five)


Synopsis: When a baker's gets hold of a magical elixir, she accidentally brings to life a man-sized gingerbread man, who everyone wants to eat! Named John Dough, he escapes the owner of the elixir temporarily by flying off to an enchanted land called the Island of Phreex, and there meets his future companion, Chick the Cherub, the first incubator baby, who helps John through a series of adventures, including escape from the Palace of Romance, where one must tell continual tales or be put to death.


John and Chick then escape to the Island of Mifkets, where they meet Pittipat the Rabbit and Para Bruin a sapient rubber bear who doesn't know his origins. The King of the Fairy Beavers also keeps his palace there, along with a device that serves the same function as Ozma's Magic Picture. The King of the Fairy Beavers helps them escape by means of flamingos, who bring them first to Pirate Island—where they briefly meet and defeat Sport, a magical construct made up of sporting equipment, and the pirates—and then to Hiland/Loland, where a prophecy that a non-human person will become their king, leads to John Dough ascending the throne of that country and uniting the people. Chick becomes a self-appointed Head Booleywag.


Continuity Notes

Dating: The story must be dated on July 3d, 1904. The dating is determined by two factors. The first is the age and identity of Chick the Cherub, who the story notes is the original incubator baby, and the second is an internal dating reference to the Louisiana Purchase Exhibition.


Boy or Girl: While Baum never identifies Chick's sex, the original incubator baby in the real world (where the story is initially set and references throughout) was Edith Eleanor McLean, who was born premature (2 pounds 7 ounces) in 1888 at the State Emigrant Hospital on Ward’s Island, New York. Interestingly, after this event, she disappears from history and nothing else is known of her, or even how long she lived. As the text of John Dough and the Cherub emphasizes that Chick is the "first and only original incubator baby," it seems likely that it's her who ended up on the Isle of Phreex.


Chick's Age: In the book's fifth chapter, "Chick the Cherub," Chick jokes that her age is six, but she's reproved by a friend who says "It was more than two years ago you were taught to make that speech. You can't be always six years old, you know." This would appear to indicate that she was at the youngest nine years old, but she could be older. Although she's been claiming to be six for over two years, she might have been saying something else prior to that. The text has one of the characters ask John Dough if he knows about the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (where incubator babies were featured). This event began on April 30, 1904. This forces the earliest date this story could occur in July of 1904, although, based on the identity of Chick, it makes her sixteen years old. Despite her small size and stature, however, this is certainly possible, as she notes being on a very restricted diet (due to being an incubator baby) of oatmeal and cream, which, apart from genetics, could result in her being much smaller in size and stature than an average sixteen year old.


Crossover: Chick, John Dough and Para Bruin make an appearance at the Emerald City in The Road to Oz, which takes place in the following year. (John Dough bears no relation to Thompson's "The Little Gingerbread Man"). Sport and Jacqueline and her parents (and their island) appear again for the first time in The Royal Explorers of Oz: Book 1.


Folk Origins: John Dough is based on an older folk story (St. Nicholas magazine published the first Gingerbread Man story in 1875 and an 1840 German story has one of a runaway pancake. Purportedly, its roots lie in ancient Grecian tradition of a substitute human sacrifice.


The Great Elixir: John Dough is brought to life by a fluid called the Great Elixir (or the Essence of Vitality, or the Water of Life), which functions much like the Powder of Life. His being made of gingerbread makes him irresistible to eat for those without scruples which he encounters who don't care that he's alive. The Great Elixir also enables him to understand and speak the language of animals and foreigners, and provides him knowledge and strength. The Great Elixir belonged to Ali Dubh, who is himself being hunted for it. He claims it had been passed down in his family through the ages to him. By means of a witch in the Outside World, Dubh purchases two "transport powders" which enable him to follow John from the Outside World, first to the Isle of Phreex, and from there to the Isle of Mifkets, where he intends to eat him, and live forever.


History: Baum began the first four chapters of a different version of the story in 1904 (without Chick the Cherub) for the Ladies Home Journal, but after they rejected it, he put it away until 1906 when he fleshed it out. Two films adaptations were made of this book, one by Baum himself. As with the original manuscript, both are lost.


Mifkets: It is likely that Mifkets and Mifkits are related, if not the same creature. What relationship either has to Scoodlers (The Road to Oz) is yet unknown, but there appears to be some commonality between them.


Para Bruin: There is no explanation as to the Rubber Bear's origins. Other rubber people include the Rubber Band from The Wicked Witch of Oz.


Racism: The Mifkets speak Arabic, which leads the King of Mifkes to make the unfortunate statement that the Arabs descend from Mifkets.


Rockets to Oz: It's noteworthy that the way John travels to the Isle of Phreex, which is just off the Nonestican continent, is by means of a large Fourth of July rocket. Years later, Speedy will end up getting to Oz by means of a home-made rocket-ship. Jam originally went to Oz via rocket, in The Hidden Valley of Oz, until Reilly & Lee told author Rachel Payes that kite would work better.


Tales from the Arabian Knights: John meets his cherubic companion Chick, along with an assortment of other "freaks," and escapes Dubh by means of mechanical bird to the Palace of Romance, but as their laws force visitors to continue telling stories—or die, they must escape that islet as well. This old law is a concept borrowed from 1001 Arabian Knights—which points to another Arabic connection.







Twinkle and Chubbins (aka. The Twinkle Tales)


Policeman Bluejay (aka. Babes in Birdland)

The eighth Borderlands of Oz Book (Book #68 of the Supreme Seventy-Five)


History: Although the publisher rejected the idea, Baum at one point had wanted to subtitle Policeman Bluejay, “An Oz story.” There is certainly enough of a connection to include this tale on the timeline, and with it, its predecessor, Twinkle and Chubbins. Both stories were finally combined into one book (as was Baum's wish) under the The Twinkle Tales moniker by the University of Nebraska Press.


Synopsis & Continuity Notes: Forthcoming






The Collected Short Stories of L. Frank Baum

The Royal Timeline of Oz considers The Complete Short Stories of L. Frank Baum the eleventh Borderlands of Oz Book (Book #71 of the Supreme Seventy-Five)


History: Baum's short fantasy stories have appeared in numerous journals and books over the years. Some of the more well-known collections include American Fairy Tales, Animal Fairy Tales, The Purple Dragon and Other Fantasies, The Runaway Shadows and Other Stories, and finally, The Collected Short Stories of L. Frank Baum, which reprints nearly every short fantasy story that Baum wrote, except "The Strange Tale of the Nursery Folk," whose authorship is in question, but which can be found in The Runaway Shadow and Other Stories ("Chrome Yellow" is also missing from that collection, but that is not a fantasy story).


While some of these take place in the outside world, all of the fantasy stories of Baum can be said to take place in the same universe, not of few of which are connected to Oz or the countries surrounding Oz. Thus, American Fairy Tales, Animal Fairy Tales and The Collected Short Stories of L. Frank Baum can be seen as an important Borderlands of Oz tales.



    The Box of Robbers

    The Glass Dog

    The Queen of Quok

    The Girl Who Owned a Bear

    The Enchanted Types

    The Laughing Hippopotamus

    The Magic Bon Bons

    The Capture of Father Time

    The Wonderful Pump

    The Dummy That Lived

    The King of the Polar Bears

    The Mandarin and the Butterfly

    The Witchcraft of Mary-Marie

    The Ryl of the Lillies

    The Strange Adventure of an Easter Egg


Synopsis and Continuity Notes: Forthcoming




The Story of Jaglon

History: This Baum short story was expanded by Jack Snow and Madeline Kilpatrick as Jaglon and the Tiger Fairies, and re-illustrated by Dale Ulrey in 1953. It was intended that they would expand all of Baum's Animal Fairy Tales, but as the first book failed to sell well, the idea was abandoned. The Royal Timeline of Oz considers this expanded version to be canonical, and lists below where the interpolations occur.



Original version

The Wilderness is divided into three Circles, the Outer, where the small animals dwell, the Middle, where the larger peaceful animals live, and the Inner, and most beautiful, where the dominant and ferocious animals fight for the privilege to live.


In the Outer Circle, the orphan tiger cub Jaglon was discovered by Nao, the Tiger Fairy, after his parents failed to return from a hunt. Nao and the other invisible Tiger Fairies looked after him until he grew strong. One day, a Bat-Witch attempts to eat his kill. When he swipes her away, she begins seeking a way to revenge herself upon him. Knowing the Tiger Fairies protect him, she watches in the hopes he'll break the Laws of the Wilderness or act cowardly.


Interpolation: Jaglon and the Tiger Fairies expansion

Returning from a hunt one day, Jaglon comes upon a small lizard caught in the roots of a vine. After freeing him, the lizard named Flitter vows to remain near him and repay the favor. Jaglon says this is unnecessary, but accepts his friendship. The lizard proves true to his word and follows him wherever he goes, and sleeping nearby at night.


Original version

Learning from a mischievous Lynx that the Lions had driven all the Tigers out of the Inner Circle, Jaglon determines to enter and face the King of the Beasts. In the vast Middle Circle, he grows hungry, but coming upon a Jaguar and his prey, he refuses to seize it; coming upon a trapped Fox, he sets him free; coming upon a Bear in his lair, he concedes it. Angry that he's committed no transgression, the Bat-Witch taunts him, calling him "coward," but he ignores her. Pleased with Jaglon, the Tiger Fairies transport him into a nice cave with plenty of food and water. They tell him they've found favor with him. He's heard tales of them and knows that each race has its own Fairyland. They then inform him to be brave and forgiving, as he will prove to the champion of a discredited race.


The next day, the magic cave vanishes, and Jaglon proceeds into the Inner Circle from which his race had been banned years before. He's warned by a Bison and Grizzly, and an Elephant tells him his ancestors had been cruel and tyrannical, for which reason the Lions conquered them. Where the former Lion King might have tolerated his presence, the new King Avok is proud. Jaglon, however, is determined to have his place amongst the great beasts. Elephant spreads the word.


Interpolation: Jaglon and the Tiger Fairies expansion

That night, the fairies come to Flitter, explaining that they must depart for another Wilderness to help a Tiger King who needs their wisdom to rule his people. Nao requests that Flitter look after Jaglon that night so that no harm comes to him and he has the strength to deal with the Lion King on the morrow. Ragna, the leader of a band of five Leopards, soon hears of the Outcast Tiger and determines to kill the upstart while he sleeps, and curry favor with the king. Flitter hears the approach of the Leopards and awakens Jaglon. He rises up to face them, and they're awed by his size and power. Unable to kill him while he slept, they withdraw to warn the Lion King. Jaglon thanks Flitter for repaying his debt and declares a bond between them for all time.


Original version

Bears, Bison, Moose, Zebra, Hippos, Unicorns, Elephants, Rhinos, Apes and Serpents gather before the king, whose summoned the other Lions to propose changing the Law so that his son, and not his brother's, will be made king after him. The Lions object that the Law of the Wilderness cannot be changed even by the King. So, King Avok determines to drown the three cubs and dares anyone to stop him.


At this, Jaglon steps forth, and seeing his great strength, Avok claims he cannot fight an Outcast, as his people were cruel. Jaglon counters that his intent to kill innocent cubs is cruel. Avok says his ancestors were overbearing. Jaglon counters that he will a just king. Avok says his people were treacherous. Jaglon responds that he is being treacherous to his late brother.


The Lions and other animals admire the Outcast and urge their king to battle. The Lion King leaps towards Jaglon who meets him in the air with a terrible clash. In the battle, King Avok finds himself blind and leaps into a nearby lake from which he is never seen or heard from again. Jaglon proves true to his word and rules in kindness, patience and gentleness.


Interpolation: Jaglon and the Tiger Fairies expansion

Jaglon and Flitter live happily together till the end of their days.


Continuity Notes

Animal Fairies: That each beast has its own group of fairies to govern over their kind, and not knooks, as indicated in The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus. Nathan M. Dehoff notes this in his Vovatia blog:

Robert Pattrick makes a point in Unexplored Territory in Oz about immortals in L. Frank Baum’s fantasy world who appear to have overlapping functions. In The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, we’re told that the crooked Knooks have the duty of “watch[ing] over the beasts of the world.” In John Dough and the Cherub, however, Pittypat the Rabbit says, “All the animals have their fairies, just as you human folks do,” and Baum echoes this sentiment in Animal Fairy Tales. Then, when the Knooks reappear in The Road to Oz, they’re described as caring for trees. Were they replaced in their guardianship by fairies in the shapes of animals, and had to take on a new function?

It is the contention of The Royal Timeline of Oz that this is exactly what happened.


Dating: It is difficult to ascertain at what point in time this story takes place. As Baum's mythology incorporates the version of history provided in the Old Testament book of Genesis, this would indicate that the story is not pre-mankind, since animals were yet living in peace with one another and the Law of the Wilderness (providing rules governing how carnivores can and cannot behave) would not have come into being until after the Flood. This would indicate that the Wilderness is in a land yet far away from humans, or even a place where humans do not travel (such as Burzee in the early days). The presence of unicorns would place this at an early time period.


Wilderness: The Law of the Wilderness is similar in many respects to the Law of the Forest, in The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus. Rules govern who carnivorous animals can and cannot kill, deference to another carnivore over his/her own kill, deference to another animal over his/her den. Courage also seems to be a rule. It is not known exactly who upholds the Law and punishes wrongdoers, save that it may be the Fairies of that particular kind of animal. When Jaglon's ancestors broke the Law by being cruel, treacherous and overbearing, the Lions were given power to depose the king and exile the Tigers, who appear to have gone to the Outer Circle (where the cub Jaglon was found). Jaglon and the Tiger Fairies indicates that there are other Wildernesses. It is unknown where upon the Earth the Wilderness was situated, save that Man is yet unknown there at this time. It is not in Fairyland, as Jaglon notes that all beasts have their own Fairyland, which points to a Heaven for each kind of animal. It is possible that Jaglon does not have the full picture, and that Fairyland incorporates all kinds of animals in peace with one another.

The Stuffed Alligator


Continuity Notes

The Discontented Gopher


Continuity Notes


The Forest Oracle


Continuity Notes


The Enchanted Buffalo


Continuity Notes


The Pea-Green Poodle


Continuity Notes


Continuity Notes


The Jolly Giraffe of Jomb


Continuity Notes


The Troubles of Pop Wombat


Continuity Notes


The Transformation of Bayal the Porcupine


Continuity Notes


The Tiger's Eye


Continuity Notes



(Originally Collected in the following Miscellaneous Collections:

The Purple Dragon and Other Fantasies & The Runaway Shadows)


Nelebel's Fairyland

Synopsis: The fairy Nelebel is banished from Burzee and exiled to the outside world with a retainer of forty knooks, ryls and gigans to accompany her. There, in Coronado, San Francisco, she determines it a new fairyland, and after a hundred years has passed, is sad to leave it.


Continuity Notes

Burzee: The titular fairy's creation of San Francisco establishes that Burzee, from The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, (hence Nonestica) was once west of the Pacific. Since the Magic Lands are now extra-dimensional, this likely indicates that one of the gateways to the Nonestic lies west of the Pacific.


Lulea: Lulea is Queen of Burzee at this time, however that does not preclude Zurline from remaining Queen of the Wood Nymphs. Zurline is the same fairy as Zulena (the fairy queen of Emerson Hough's The King of Gee Whiz) as revealed in The Wizards of Silver and Gold in Oz.


Nelebel: This fairy, banished to the outside world, was earlier part of Queen Lurline's band. She enchanted the evil Blorgens to sleep for a thousand years. (Oziana 1982: "The Cowardly Lion and the Courage Pills")


Little Bun Rabbit

One of the Baum's Mother Goose in Prose stories, this short features the tale of a young girl named Dorothy, and there is no reason to say that this isn't the Dorothy of Kansas years before she travels to Oz.


The Littlest Giant


History: This unpublished manuscript was discovered several years after the author’s death and may have been an unrelated fairy tale that Baum later added "An Oz story" subtitle to, perhaps with thoughts of expanding it. First published in the Spring 1975 issue of The Baum Bugle.


Synopsis: After years of being scorned by his fellow giants, Nibble the Littlest Giant convinces Kwa, the son of King Goola the Gutton to steal his father's magic dart in order to obtain mince pies. This dart, which precisely meets its target, has allowed the king to kill numerous elephants, horses, and humans, which the giants eat. Kwa replaces the dart with a fake one that Nibble has made, so that when the king arises to go after horses, he is overtaken and killed by a band of humans.


With the magic dart in his possession, Nibble overcomes any giant who dares his ascension to the throne, reducing the giant population, and turning the community into a more insular one.


Continuity Notes

Dating: There is no indication in this short story as to when it takes place. It appears to be before Ozma comes to the throne, as the giant destruction of man and beast would likely not have gone unchallenged by Ozma. The existence of automobiles likely places it after late-1800s.


Sequel: A retold version was included in its novel-length 2004 sequel The Giant King of Oz, which works to place the story in the context of Oz history.


The Runaway Shadows (aka. A Trick of Jack Frost)


Synopsis: The Frost King informs his son Jack Frost that it's his birthday, and the coldest day of the year, and to go forth and play pranks on the earth people, nipping noses, ears, toes and fingers. Meanwhile, the demanding Prince of Thumbumbia insists that despite the cold he and his cousin Lady Lindeva will go out to play, and requests their furs. Wrapped head to toe, they venture out, and there Jack Frost awaits them. Yet, he's puzzled that he's unable to get to their noses and ears, so he decides to freeze their shadows instead.


Once a solid mass, the shadows come to life, and Jack puts into their heads the notion to run away. Leaping the great wall, they head in the direction of Burzee. Entering the forest, Kahtah the great tiger of Burzee spots their shadows and lies in wait for the prince and his cousin, but when he pounces the shadows only laugh at him and run. A ryl inquires why they've left their masters, and they reply that it's fun and they don't wish to tag along. But he reminds them that when the weather changes, they will thaw and become as nothing, leaving their masters with no shadows. Heeding his advice, they return to the castle of their masters to join with them once again.


In the interim, however, the prince's uncle has died, leaving him to rule the kingdom. But when he stands in the sun preparing to board the carriage that will take him to the city to be crowned, one of the courtiers notices that he has no shadow. Thus, they decide that since no one can respect a king who has no shadow, they will make Lady Lindeva queen instead. But when they discover that she has no shadow either, they bring the matter before Earl Highlough. Determining to go see for himself, he heads to the Castle of Thumbumbia, but by then the shadows have returned and thawed out in the castle, and the prince is made king.


Years later, after they are married, the wise King and Queen always look to see that their shadows are still attached, but for their part, the shadows had learned their lesson.

Continuity Notes

Dating: Apart from the time of year being winter, there's no indication as to year itself.

Jack Frost: Jack appears again some years later in the story "The Blizzard of Oz" (Oziana 1987).

Thumbumbia and Burzee: Burzee comes from The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus. The proximity of these realms is here shown, and is represented on the official map of Oz by the International Wizard of Oz Club.


The Queen of Quok:

Synopsis and Continuity Notes forthcoming









The Master Key: An Electrical Fairy Tale

Synopsis: When a young electronics aficionado accidentally unlocks the Master Key, the Demon of Electricity comes to bring him various advanced gifts to help mankind. On his first trip into the world, the boy squanders these gifts and nearly doesn't make it back. The Demon gives him three additional gifts. On his second trip he discovers several ruthless characters and adventures. Refusing any further gifts, the boy concludes that mankind isn't ready to handle them, and sends the demon away.


Continuity Notes

Although not considered one of the Borderlands of Oz books, the Demon of Electricity is undoubtedly part of Baum's larger mythology, and appears again in the yet unpublished book, The Royal Crab of Oz.


Dating can be narrowed to the time of the Second Boer War.










Royal Baking Company Books

History: Advertising pamphlets written by Ruth Plumly Thompson in 1923 for the Royal Baking Company contain some allusions to Oz. "Billy in Bunbury" takes place in the Oz community of Bunbury, so it can be reasoned that all of four of these rare illustrated narrative poems (interspersed with various recipes) take place in or around Nonestica.


The uncredited illustrator of "Billy in Bunbury," "The Comical Cruises of Captain Cooky" and "Prince of the Gelatin Isles" is believed to be Gertrude Alice Kay. The uncredited illustrator of "The Little Gingerbread Man" is Chas. J. Coll. For more information, go here. These stories were all directly brought into continuity in the short story "The Hearts and Flowers of Oz."


Billy in Bunbury


Synopsis: Flap Jack, the King's messenger, informs King Hun Bun that their neighbor Billy won't eat breakfast and has lost his taste for baseball. Taking his dog Ginger Snaps and a train to Billy's house he inquires of the boy what the matter is, and Billy tells him there's nothing good to eat. Noting how thin the boy is, he looks around and finds there's no dessert anywhere. The King then tells his mother the boy is being deprived, but she remarks that cakes are too expensive.  Hun Bun then gives her Dr. Price's Baking Powder cook book. Taking Billy with them on the train back to Bunbury, Billy discovers a greeting party of cakes and tarts. Shrinking him down, they take him to the circus and then the police, where he breaks off a piece of the fence to eat and part of the gate. After several other points of interest, Billy grows hungry and the King realizes he has to go before he starts feasting on them. The King's chocolate Rolls Royce is brought to them and they drive Billy back home, where Hun Bun gives his mother a can of Dr. Price's Baking Powder. Billy's mother becomes a great cook and Billy begins to enjoy food and life again.


Continuity Notes

Bunbury: Bunbury first appeared in The Emerald City of Oz, though by the time of this story, there are some changes in the city. The dating is 1921 when Dr. Price's Baking Powder cook book was released; it also fits in with the history of Oz (which didn't know baseball until 1915 (when Peter taught them about it in The Gnome King of Oz). As Nathan M. DeHoff notes, "Baum’s Bunbury doesn’t appear to have a ruler, while King Hun Bun rules in Thompson’s. Then again, who knows what political changes occurred within the intervening years?" Given the situation that happened with Dorothy during her visit there, it seems appropriate that steps were taken to provide governorship for the residents of Bunbury, as well as to protect them (hence the police force under Captain Jelly Roll, which the King makes a point of showing Billy). As to the Syrup Sea that Bunbury resides next to (Baum only notes that it's in a clearing in the forest), this may be a feature of Bunbury that Dorothy didn't get to see, and may be more of a lake or pond that they call a sea.


The Little Gingerbread Man


Synopsis: When the King of Jalapomp bans cakes due to indigestion from the cook's bad baking, the citizens of Jalapomp grow despondent, particularly since the birthday of Princess Posy is almost at hand. A Flour Fairy overhears this, and brings the news to the Queen of the Flour Folk who rules in Cookry Land. The Gingerbread Man is brought to life and volunteers to help. Other sapient baked goods hear the story and join him. The queen gives him a book to give to his cook.


Magically, they fly in a chocolate plane to Jalapomp. The king smells them and discovers his appetite growing, and says that if his baker could make bake cakes as good as them, he'd end the prohibition. To avoid getting eaten themselves, they toss the royal cook book along with Royal Baking Powder from the air, and he begins to bake cakes and cookies that are delicious. With success in Jalapomp, Johnny Gingerbread flies to different place dropping cook books and Royal Baking Powder.


Continuity Notes

Dating: The implication may be that this takes place during the advent of the Royal Baking Powder Company, after 1873 but before 1929, when the company merged with Fleischman to become Standard Brands. Their cookbook, which is mentioned in the poem several times, was published in 1917, which offers the earliest date in which this story can take place. The dating is clarified in the short story "The Hearts and Flowers of Oz."


Gingerbread People: This Gingerbread Man, also named John, is no relation to John Dough of John Dough and the Cherub. He resides in Cookery Town (or Cookry Land), ruled over by the Queen of the Flour Folk.


The Gooch: Mentioned by the King of Jalapomp (who says "May a Gooch fly off with you"), this flying creature may clarify the expression that Kabumpo often says, and likely hails from Zamagoochie in the Gillikin Country (see the notes in The Gnome King of Oz).


Princess Posy: This is not Pozy Pink of Pumperdink (Kabumpo in Oz), but may have been named after her.


Queen of the Flour Folk: This queen is noted for bringing to life all of the sapient baked people. In the story "The Hearts and Flowers of Oz," she is noted as being the former kitchen maid Fran from the Oziana 1985 story "Magic in the Kitchen."


The Comical Cruises of Captain Cooky


Synopsis: The King of all the royal cakes ensures that his baked goods reach everyone via his messenger bird the Royal Dough-Dough. One day, the bird reports that in the midst of a green sea no one has ever sailed is the Isle of Bombaree, whose residents have never tasted cake, and who make wars instead of having fun. So the King calls forth Captain Cooky who commands the Royal Flap Jack Tars (who deliver cookies to various ports). The King and bird tell their tale, and Captain Cooky sets sail at once aboard the PotsanPansy with Royal Baking Powder to bring peace and baked goods to Bombaree.


With his Bis-Kitty Quick Crisp and the Flap Jack Tars, they sail seven days and nights till they find the island, as well as a mermaid, who they share some Royal Baking Powder with. On the island they meet the Chief Wallypoo who warns them to leave if they don't wish to fight, but Captain Cooky and his crew build an oven and begin baking. Wallypoo and the other islanders love the biscuits, tarts and pies, and the captain and his crew stay a week teaching them how to bake the Royal way. He departs, leaving them a large supply of Royal Baking Powder, and in time the islanders become more peaceful.


Continuity Notes

Baked Goods: As with "The Little Gingerbread Man," the thrust of the story is on providing a community with tasty baked goods. In the story, "The Hearts and Flowers of Oz," this land works with Cookry Land and Bunbury for the purpose of ensuring food is distributed throughout Nonestica.


Dating: As the story deals with Royal Baking Powder products, it also likely takes place around the same time as "The Little Gingerbread Man," though in this story there is no mention of the cook book until the end, and the captain spends a week on Bombaree teaching the residents there how to cook, it seems likely the islanders don't know how to read.


Royal Kingdom of Cakes: Or the Dough-Dough Lands. There is no explicit name given for the kingdom, nor even of the king himself who is merely called the Royal Coffee Cake. As with the Gelatin Isles, this realm borders the sea. Jelly Bean Island (from "A Visit to Jelly Bean Island" in the book Sissajig and Other Surprises) is likely part of this kingdom and also a creation of Jinnicky the Red Jinn.


The Prince of the Gelatin Isles


Synopsis: As the Gela-tinies of the Royal Gelatin Isle enjoy themselves and their Gela-town, which borders the macaroon mountains that only banana birds and elves know how to find, Prince Jolliby Jell leads a squadron of ships in his flagship Tiny across the sea. Watching for pirates, they magically deliver their royal treat to hundreds of children before returning to their Gelatin Isle. Concerned that he can't reach everyone, he petitions the old Royal Jinn who lives on macaroon mountain to spread their goodies everywhere. The Jinn, who is a wizard, and who made the Gelatin Isle with the help of a ginger bird and orange elf, magically creates a formula that mothers everywhere can easily make.


Continuity Notes

Dating: The main hint as to the date is that the "jolly" Jinn was so enthralled with his creation that he decided to make the gelatin treats available to mothers and children everywhere. Although the distribution of commercial gelatin desserts took place at the turn of the century (which maybe around the time the Jinn created the isle), the Royal Gelatin brand began in 1925.


Jinnicky and the Gelatin Isles: While the story is thin, mostly descriptions of the various personages and the island itself, the Gelatin Isles is noted as being created by a jinn who's a wizard. While it would at first seem unlikely that this is Jinnicky the Red Jinn of Ev, since the text refers to him as "old" and "thin," by comparison to the Gela-tinies, who are depicted as very fat and very young, the Jinn would be considered by them old and thin. He is said to have needed the assistance of a ginger bird and an orange elf to create the Gelatin Isles, and presumably the Kingdom of Royal Cakes from The Comical Cruises of Captain Cooky, as that land also borders an ocean. The Red Jinn, of course, lives in Ev and not the macaroon mountains, but he may have a residence there.


Pirates: The pirates who the Gela-tinies watch over may be the same ones that plague Volcano Island, which is also made of dough, in Lucky Bucky in Oz. If so, then the Royal Gelatin Isle might be between Ev and the Nonentic Ocean.






King Kojo

The thirteenth Borderlands of Oz Book (Book #73 of the Supreme Seventy-Five)


History: Published in 1938, King Kojo was originally serialized in King Comics in 1937. Those stories were reformatted for the book and include the original illustrations from Marge (of Little Lulu fame). The final three serialized King Kojo stories were not reprinted in the book King Kojo and later made their book debut in The Wizard of Way-Up and Other Wonders.


Continuity Notes Following on Baum's example, Ruth Plumly Thompson brought several of her own fantasy realms into the Oz universe, and that includes King Kojo's Oh-Go-Wan, which (as detailed in The Royal Explorers of Oz) can be found in the Rolantic Ocean, bordering the Nonentic and the Nonestic. An Ogre of Oh-Go-Wan (Ogowan) first shows up in Pirates in Oz. Oh-Go-Wan and many of its characters appear again in the second book of The Royal Explorers of Oz series.







The Wizard of Way-Up and Other Wonders

The fourteenth Borderlands of Oz Book (Book #74 of the Supreme Seventy-Five)


This second collection of short Ruth Plumly Thompson stories and poems contains along with early fantasy work she had written for various publications, several references to places and personages that were incorporated in Oz, such as Patch, Sun-Top Mountain and, mostly famously, Pumperdink. There are as well several Oz shorts Thompson had written over the years.


Note: the following listings do not include poetry unless directly (or even indirectly) related to Oz, or non-fantasies, e.g., "The Lad Who Found His Fortune."


The Wizard of Way-Up


Synopsis: At the top of the tallest of the Silver Mountains is Star Top wherein lies the castle of King Ripitik of Way Up. The Yup citizens of Way Up who reside there are happy, live in castles of their own and have silver hair. The king's oldest friend is the Wise Man Woff the Wizard, a Scissor Wizard from a long line of Scissor Wizards, wielding the silver shears handed down to him. Worrying about the future of the Princess Patickla, whose mother vanished when she was an infant, Woff suggests to the king that they invite princes and kings from below to court her. The king refuses, not wanting to lose the company of his little girl, even preferring she marry the gardener's boy Blenny.


Taking matters into his own hand, Woff shoots a magical silver arrow in three directions with a picture of the princess and her name and title. Four days later, Merk of Mireshire, Rler of Many Marshes, rides atop his boars to Star Top demanding the hand of the Princess. Everyone is shocked by his squat and hairy appearance and rudeness, but he is angry that the rode all the way on the invitation of the picture that was sent to his castle, and demands that he will take her by force when he returns. Woff goes about preparing an invisible wall, but that will take two days to erect, and in the meantime, Merk has hidden himself in the bushes. Finding the right castle proves difficult as everyone has a castle in Way-Up, and he climbs by mistake up Woff's castle stairs. Disappointed that no princess is at the top, he catches sight of himself in a mirror and is shocked to see just how ugly he is and begins to use the Wizard's shears to trim his hair, commenting that he should look as handsome as he is rich. All of a sudden he's spun around and when he sees himself again he's changed into a handsome young monarch. Suspecting this was the result of the shears, he tales them and wishes himself back in the forest. With that, he turns his pack of boards into haroses and sleeps the night, plotting his next move.


The next morning he emerges as King Krem of Erim, bearing presents for the Princess. Krem shows considerably more manners than he did as Merk, even accompanying the king on a fishing trip. Unlike Ripitik, Woof takes a disliking to him and rues the fact that he shot the arrows. The Princess loves her many presents and a grand ball is held that night for the king, so that by morning everyone is won over by Krem, except Woof who at last completes his invisible wall. But then he discovers his magic shears are missing. Announcing their theft to the king, Krem check his pocket for them and discovers that he's lost them as well! He rushes to check the place in the forest where he'd spelt, but the invisible wall blocks him from reaching it.


Just before the invisible wall came up, King Richard of Rockwood, a wealthy king whose chosen to work and play with the working class, discovers the picture of Princess Patickla while hunting deer, and is taken by how natural and unaffected she appears. Determining to win her hand, he heads up the mountain where he discovers the magical shears that Merk/Krem left behind. With them, he inadvertently changes his clothes change to more rustic ones. When he spies the princess fortuitously running in his direction, he trips and catches her. She explains that they're searching for the Wizard's magic shears. Realizing he may have them, he doesn't reveal them and agrees to help them search. They come across Krem, angry about the wall, who insists that the shears are on the other side. When he goes to tell Woof to lower the wall, Rich calls him a swineherd, causing Patickla to piece together that Krem of Erim is Merk of the Mire. As she goes to inform them, the guards come down to arrest Rich, as Krem has accused him. The silver shears come out of Rich's pocked, but Patickla grabs them first, wishing that whoever's been transformed by the shears become himself. At that, Krem shrinks down to Merk and Rich's garments become the rich hunting outfit he formerly wore. Merk's horses return to wild boards and come charging down. Woof grabs the shears and wishes them all away. Rich explains what happened, and ten days later, he and Patickla are married and the invisible wall comes down.


Continuity Notes

Dating: The story occurs over the course of six days, with the epilogue occurring ten days after that. The year, however, is uncertain, save that it must take place prior to 1939 when the story was first written. The first batch of stories ("The Wizard of Way-Up") takes place in November. The second series is four months later in March.


Way-Up Where: A Silver Mountain appeared in Handy Mandy in Oz, however, the Way-Up stories take place on the tallest of the Silver Mountains, called Star Mountain. Its people are called Yups, and are similar in name and type of geography to Baum's Yips (from The Lost Princess of Oz). There, all similarities end. That King Richard is openly hunting may indicate that animals don't speak in this country, and in fact no animals in the story utter speech. The Silver Mountains, Way-Up and Star Mountain appear on a continent west of Nonestica in The Goat Girls of Oz.


The Wizard of Way-Up and King Ripitik the Tenth


Synopsis: Four months after Princess Patlicka married King Richard, her father King Ripitik and the Wizard of Way-Up decide to go down the mountain to visit her in the kingdom of Rockwood. Having never done so before, and not wanting to use magic, they go on foot, preparing for danger. They meet a goat, expecting to follow it to a castle (or have it for lunch), but when the goat vanishes down a hole, they meet Herman the Hermit of Lower-down and a slate that welcomes them in. Intrigued, Ripitik wishes to visit, but the Wizard argues against it.


The king has his way and they soon discover that the labyrinth of the Lowerdown is populated by mischievous dwarves. The Hermit is actually King Reddy the Brave of the Underwood, and he warns them that his people's only recreation is to pull beards, throw rocks and chase those who fall into the Underwood. As the king cannot allow them to do that to him or each other, he needs visitors for their entertainment. He provides them with food first, brought out by Sauceroo, as the dwarves line up for their sport. Apart from the two hundred and sixty dwarves, the Dwarf King calls out the underdogs who have eight legs, with four on their backs to allow them to climb the walls and ceilings. When asked about the goat, Reddy explains that it was an illusion. The dwarves soon begin the chase, and despite their brave attempts, Ripitik and Woof are overwhelmed by their numbers until at last Woof throws off a pile of dwarves and grabs the Dwarf King's staff and turns the dwarves into wooden statues. Departing, Woff promises to restore them to themselves once they're out of the Underwood, but intends to keep the staff for himself, as well as one of the now-wooden dogs.


Unable to get through the Fire Fall and unwilling to search the many passages for another exit, Ripitik goes to sleep. The Wizard, however, wishes again upon the Dwarf King's staff that they pass through into the castle of a friendly ruler on the other side. They end up in a small dark room, with even smaller beds, but they manage to sleep. Woof notes that he left the staff back in the Underwood. At dawn, King Ripitik is amused to discover that they're in Midgetville, where they soon meet Mayanna the Mighty, Princess of Little and explain that they're friends of Reddy. At breakfast, she explains that the Dwarf King has asked to marry her. She'd have done so years earlier, but she wishes to live in Little while Reddy wishes to live in the Underwood. The Wizard suggests they divide their time, and so splendid an idea does she find it, she sends Threebit her Royal Messenger to tell the king. Only problem is that he remains wooden. Woof convinces Ripitik to let him use his magic shears, and wishes away the king's bad and mischievous traits, and restores them back to their original forms. At that the little eight-legged dog comes back to life and runs off to chase a cow.


The Princess of Little provides them with directions and chariots, and they head to Much and Much, which is just north of Rockwood. The chariot driver warns them that the Orps are big (not quite giants) and to avoid shaking hands with them; he also warns them to eat everything that's placed before them. They soon arrive and are greeted by the gatekeeper Too-Tall and the king, His Muchesty, Much-Too-Much. The King brings them through his lion-jawed passageway to the monstrous dining hall, where the twelve-foot tall Muchers pile on giant stacks of food on their plates. The Muchers are course and vulgar in their manner and speech, and the King explains that not eating everything is a cause for battle in his kingdom. Fortunately, for the Ripitik and Woof, the eight-legged underdog has followed them into the castle, and they covertly pass most of their food to the dog who devours it. But when the Much King announces that next come the games, hard games of wrestling, boxing, throwing and catching, Woof the Wizard has had enough, and throws the underdog at the king. The dog runs up his chest and starts biting, and terrified, all the Muchers flee. But Ripitik and Woof soon find themselves in a room with no exit save for a button above their heads they can't reach. With Ripitik standing on Woof's shoulders, however, he pushes the button which leads to an elevator, which whisks them to the top of the castle and pushing them out into the air, where they fall into the deep lake below. When they come to, they find themselves in King Rockwood's private lake, where they happily surprise Richard and Patickla who are amazed by their adventures.


Continuity Notes

Dating: The recognition by Ripitik and Woof of elevators (and the English term for it, "lift") and the concern that Ripitik displays "D'ye think it will ever stop?" seems to hint that mechanically-operated elevators were a relatively new phenomenon, which points to the mid-nineteenth century (Derby, England saw the first cargo lift in 1830).


Return to Way-Up: The story The Goat Girls of Oz features a return to this Thompsonian kingdom.


Rockinghorse Hill

The Land of Nod


Synopsis: In a mansion on Rockinghorse Hill, toys and dolls that have been worn out and broken by children are mended and spend time with one another.


Continuity Notes This short poem, written long before the Toy Story series, or even before Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer's Island of Misfit Toys, is set "beyond the great Kingdom of Play." There is a city called Play in Grampa in Oz, which is a close enough connection to argue that Rockinghorse Hill is in Oz. "The Land of Nod" is a companion piece and was printed with "Rockinghorse Hill" in the original pamphlet.


The Enchanted Hat

Synopsis: In the town of Oldenberg in Shadow Mountain, Tottsy Tiggins urges her grandson Franz Franz to go outside to play. The boy meets a strange who offers him a magic flying hat. Raising the brim causes the wearer to go up, and lowering it makes him go down. After making the man prove it can do what he says, the boy agrees, trading his hat with the strangers. But when the boy goes to show his grandmother, she discovers to their dismay a note on the band that says the hat is the Wizard Weejum's, and whoever wears it cannot remove it unless they find someone willing to trade for it. The pair try to cope with the situation, but the boy finds sleep near impossible as the brim keeps raising.


The next morning, his grandmother tries to get him to trade it with her, but as he doesn't want her getting hurt, he runs off towards Sunnydale where, while playing a polka on his harmonica, he meets a peddler with whom he shows the power of the hat. But when he expresses interest in it, the boy suddenly realizes he was thinking of deceiving the man, and runs off again. To make penance, he secretly helps a local farmer by carrying wood to his shed. Before returning home, he decides to fly up Shadow Mountain to see the huts of the shepherds who live on the slope. There he meets a man named Emil searching for his hat. The man isn't alarmed that the boy can fly, and Franz tells him his story. Emil, who is a sheep-herder who sleeps out of doors, explains that he would benefit from the hat, and so the boy trades him for a turban he hastily makes. He flies Franz back to his home and departs, coming to visit him every spring.


Continuity Notes Story takes place in November. Apart from the existence of the magic hat, there is no clear indication of whether Shadow Mountain is in the fairylands or when this story takes place. Polka is a popular form of music in the area, as Tottsy has won awards for her accordion playing, and Franz plays polka on his harmonica. Polka began in the mid-19th century in Bohemia and Central Europe. Oldenberg means 'old settlement' and spelled Oldenburg refers to a Slavic and German town. Neither of the real towns are located on a mountain, nor is there a Shadow Mountain in the outside world.


An Ozzy Adventure


Synopsis: Going out from the Emerald City for a stroll, the Cowardly Lion begins to get sleepy after walking about 20 miles and finds a woodland to sleep in. His snores are so loud, however, that a mischievous dwarf shaves off his mane with his shears. Wakening before dawn, he notices that it's colder as he sets off to find a stream, and there discovers that he'd been shaved. Feeling weak, he makes his way to the farm of an old friend and stays in hiding there until his mane grows back. Returning to the Emerald City, he tells everyone that he made a trip the north and of the adventures he had there.


Continuity Notes There is no way to date this short poem, save to place it some time before 1960 (when it was composed) when the Cowardly Lion was away for some time. Since a "lion’s mane grows at the same rate as human hair," according to Craig Packer, a 2012 National Geographic Waitt grantee and an ecologist at the University of Minnesota. As human hair grows between an inch and two inches a month, and in Oz, we can assume that because the ideal conditions are in place, the latter is reasonable. Since the Cowardly Lion's mane would have grow to its full length (up to a foot long), he would have been away from the Emerald City for about six months.


The Bright Lad and the Giant


Synopsis: A young fiddle-player whose slain dragons falls in love, but has nothing to give to the princess he's fallen in love with. So hiring himself out to a giant to rid him of a dragon that's promises to come for his daughter, the giant promises to give him anything he might want in his kingdom, imagining that he'll want to wed his daughter. The man lulls the dragon to sleep with his music and then chops off his head. Rather than request the giant's daughter, he asks for a hillock behind the castle, and there he brings his princess after their wedding.


Continuity: The story is said to take place during the time Prince Charming wakened Sleeping Beauty. That story is from the Brothers Grimm Little Briar Rose, which derived from Perrault's 1687 work La Belle au bois dormant, better known as The Sleeping Beauty, but it itself was a sanitized version of the 1634 Italian story Sun, Moon and Talia, by Giambattista Basile, who, in his collection of fairy tales, Pentamerone, adapted it from Book III, Chapter III: “Histoire de Troïlus et de Zellandine,” of a fourteenth-century French romance called Perceforest (which was not printed until 1528). Yet even Basile's version derives from an earlier French story, Pandragus et Libanor, by Baudouin Butor, and “Frayre de Joy e Sor de Plaser,” from the mid-1200s, and based on an Arthurian England of the 5th and 6th Centuries. Butor's version is the oldest known version of Sleeping Beauty.

The Magic Tree


Synopsis: When young Eric spies pirates burying a treasure under a tree in his father's garden, the pirates tell him they're planting a magic tree for him, but he can only tell his son and grandson. The pirates are later killed, but the boy obeys, and years later shares it with his son, who years later shares it with his. When the business turns sour and he is at a loss as to what to do, a storm knocks the tree over. In its roots lies the pirate treasure, bringing him great fortune.


Continuity Notes Takes place in the real world, in Trondheimsfjord, an inlet of the Norwegian Sea, and an important waterway in the Viking Age.


The Seeress of Saucerville


Synopsis: When Samantha, the Princess of Saucerville, turns down the latest suitor, Captain Questor, her father the King goes to see the Witch of Whatalow Valley, Sally, who tells him that his daughter is not impressed with singing or games, but would be interested more if he could ride well. So, the king prepares his wildest horse Trumpeter for him to join them on a canter. The horse, however, dashes him around, leaving him injured at the foot of the Whatahi Mountain, where Sally finds him and brings him to her cottage for mending. Acknowledging that Samantha is heartless, he asks Sally to tell his fortune, and she reveals that he will work for his fortune and marry a girl with red hair. As Questor sees she has red hair, he asks for directions to Widdicoomb, where he will learn the trade, open a mill next to her cottage and marry her, for she knew when he first came that he was meant for her.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Due to the inclusion of Sally, Questor, Whatalow Valley and other elements of this story in The Goat Girls of Oz, the dating of this story can be more easily confirmed as occurring as close to the year of publication, 1940, as not much has changed between that time and the time Handy Mandy meets her. That Sally and Questor haven't aged is an indication that the continent they're on is also enchanted like most of the Nonestican continent.


Location: As per The Goat Girls of Oz, Whatalow Valley, Saucerville and Widdicoomb are located on a continent west of Oz, and not far from the Silver Mountains and Way-Up (from The Wizard of Way-Up).


Sally the Seeress of Saucerville: Sally is revealed in The Goat Girls of Oz to be the sister of Handy Mandy, of Handy Mandy in Oz.

Tales of King Kojo


History: The three concluding Kojo tales in this book do not appear in the book King Kojo and are reprinted here for the first time since their debut in King Comics.


Synopsis: The Wiseman of Og: Returning from a visit with the Grand Whacker of Awakawoo on the other side of the Black Forest, Ketch the Court Jester and Pogo the Page complain to King Kojo that their court is too shabby. Kojo, who doesn't want his court to be posh, agrees only that they should have a Wiseman, and allows the boys to advertise for one. Soon a so-called prophet arrives claiming the Greatest Wiseman will arrive at the stroke of ten, but who comes through at that time is a two-tailed Great Dane. The prophet is aghast, but King Kojo elects the dog their new Wiseman. When the so-called Wiseman arrives, Kojo asks the dog if either of them are who they say they are, and the dog growls and attacks them, revealing a set of burglar tools from under their robes. Delighted with his new pet, he gets him a golden collar that reads "Wiseman of Og."


The Wizard of Whatintot: A sailor comes up to the shores of Oh-go-wan, and noting that the position of Wiseman has been filled, decides to be instead a wizard from the enchanted Island of Whatintot. Announcing himself at court, King Kojo protests that there's nothing for a wizard to do in his kingdom, but the old seaman retorts that he's fine doing nothing. To test him, Kojo asks him to tell him where he keeps his treasure. Closing his eye, he points randomly to the north, amazing the assembly as that is where the safe is concealed. He's then asked to pick out their newly appointed Wiseman. At that he fails, pointing to the Royal Poet Potogopin. He admits then that he's the son of a sea-cook. Kojo asks Wiseman if he is a wizard, and the dog covers his eyes with his paws. When he asks if he is a good man, despite being a bad wizard, the dog licks him on the nose. The seaman says that he was working as a carpenter when he dropped his hammer on the skipper's head. Kojo thus appoints him Castle Carpenter, and learns his name is Snockerwozzle, which the Cook shortens to Wozzle.


A Wiseman Brings His Present to the King: Kojo, Pogo and Ketch discuss how smart their dog Wiseman is and wonder what presents to get him for Christmas. Christmas is new to Wiseman and wasn't celebrated where he came from. Thoughtful and anxious about it, he heads out and encounters Dorcas who tells him that she's making coral chains for the girls in the village. This gives Wiseman an idea and he bounds off, returning late the next night. After exchanging gifts on Christmas morning, Wiseman brings in a giant wishbone for the king. The king wishes for everyone to have whatever they want most if they don't already have it, and the wish comes true. Presents pop magically into the room, knocking everyone over. The dinosaur wishbone melts away, leaving everyone happy and content.


Continuity Notes These three short stories introduce the two-tailed Great Dane Wiseman to the court, along with Snockerwozzle the seaman. As with its predecessor, King Kojo, these stories can be dated to between 1905 and 1915 due to Dorcas' statement that she's lived in Oh-Go-Wan for 80/90 years. Oh-Go-Wan is one of the few fairylands of Thompson's that is immortal, as nearly all of its characters, including Wiseman, appear eight and a half decades later, un-aged, in The Royal Explorers of Oz series.


The Sailmender of Dover


Synopsis: One day when the sailmender comes in from mending sails and telling stories to children of the mer-people, he hears a squeaking in the basement and there finds a huge gray rat in his wife's steel trap. As with other small rats he'd save from drowning, he saves the gray rat. One day, as he goes missing, the gray rat sets out to find him, finally locating him in prison because he couldn't pay the rent on his house. His wife left him and went to live with her sister. The gray rat leaves and returns with an army of rats who gnaw and scratch their way through the prison, freeing the sailmender. So, together with the big gray rat the old man goes down to the sea, "and the people of the sea took the old man home."


Continuity Notes Thompson dates the story to before the time of airplanes "when people traveled over the land by stage and over the sea by sail," the former which means by stagecoach, and thus prior to the South-Eastern Railway in 1844. The story also describes a debtors' prison, which was abolished in 1869. Another point of interest is the story's final line that the "people of the sea took the old man home," which not only links the story to the tales of mer-folk (which feature in Baum's mythology), but implies that the sailmender might have had merman blood, a concept explored far more darkly by H.P. Lovecraft in "The Shadow Over Innsmouth," in which narrator/protagonist Robert Holmstead discovers to his horror his familial connection to the Deep Ones.


The Flask With the Golden Stopper


Synopsis: When ten year old Stephen Dower of Trenton, New Jersey fishes up an old bottle in Delaware, pulls out its golden stopper and follows the instructions in the message inside, he is whisked away to the kingdom of Konodore, where King Kanadoo allows no noise whatsoever. Thinking that stuffy, he whistles and runs, causing the Chief Husher to arrest him on both charges. But when he meets the king, he is surprised to discover that it is a young man who has a terrible headache and for whom no medicines help. Stevie is taken to the cellar library to help dust books for two days, one for each broken law. The librarian Recordis sees the bottle Stevie has and tells him that it's been in the royal family for three centuries and that it was he who sent the bottle, tossing it into the River Dee where it ended up magically in Delaware, summoning him.


Stephen learns that everything was fine with the king until his father died; a week after the coronation, Recordis the former Prime Minister was put in the library, the schools and factories were closed, clocks were stopped and music forbidden. Prior to then, the boy was lively and a fine flutist. While dusting the shelves, Stevie is called away by the Chief Husher to play a game of checkers with the king. He asks Kanadoo why he doesn't remove his crown, but the boy says it's the law that he wear it at all times. After the game, Stephen walks about and finds the king's old flute, which he puts on a table near the throne. Recordis then tells him that the crown keeps him awake, as he must wear it even to bed. Stevie figures out that because it's his father's crown and that Kandoo is larger than he, it is causing his headaches. So, the two of them sneak into the throne room where the boy is sleeping and lift off his crown. They hide it in the library. Soon, they hear the sound of a flute and know that all is well. The boy says goodbye and with the flask is whisked back to Deleware, where as per Recordis' instructions, he tosses it back into the river.


Continuity Notes Due to the recent death of King Kanadoo's father, and the very modern presence of Stephen, Konodore cannot be in Oz proper, but is likely a kingdom somewhere else in Nonestica. The dating is uncertain, but has been placed not much earlier than its publication date.


The Enchanted Tree of Oz

History: In 1927, Thompson wrote this unfinished story for a radio contest that was broadcast throughout several cities with the winner to supply the conclusion to the story. Over 200 endings were received, all of which are lost, including the winner entry. Also lost is the page in which Dorothy decides to climb up into the tree. In 1965, the Baum Bugle reprinted Thompson's portion of the story and ran its own contest. The winner, Bill Eubank, had his conclusion published in the following issue. The Thompson half has also been reprinted in the IWOOC’s The Wizard of Way up and Other Wonders. Mention of this Unfinished Story Contest was also made in the 1927 issue of The Ozmapolitan.


Synopsis: Original: En route from the Emerald City to the Tin Woodman's castle in the Winkie Country for the 10th anniversary of Tin Castle's construction, Dorothy, the Scarecrow, Cowardly Lion and Tin Man recall their first adventure together. Dorothy gets hungry along the Queen's Road, but there is only an odd-looking fruit upon a tree, which the Lion agrees to test out in case it's poison. But when the Scarecrow climbs the tree, branches begin to grow, hiding him from view. Dorothy decides to follow him up to see what became of him and disappears as well. Distraught, the Tin Woodman chops the tree down, but they're nowhere to be found. A dwarf pops out from amongst the branches, and spouts a poem saying that they've robbed the tree of Whutter Wee, and that if they don't chop it into kindling before night, they'll never see their friends again. So, the Tin Man begins chopping while the Cowardly Lion rushes off to the Emerald City. But then a storm begins.


Conclusion: Terrified by the storm, the Cowardly Lion circles back only to find that the Tin Woodman is gone as well, and another poem of the dwarf warning that he'll never beat the tree. In the Palace, Ozma looks at her Magic Picture to see her friends' progress, only to see them disappear in the tree. The Lion, meanwhile, begins to notice that his friends have become strange fruit on the tree. But the dwarf again warns that if the tree is not kindling by nightfall, they'll be lost for good. But just then, a bolt of green lightning splits the tree, and the Lion pounces upon the dwarf, forcing him to gather the fruit that are his friends. In a moment, they're in the Emerald City, but the dwarf swears to not disenchant them. Ozma recalls that the Wicked Witch of the West had enchanted several trees to catch slaves for her. She would pick the fruit when they were ripe, and bring it to her castle so that anytime she needed a new slave, she would disenchant it. All of a sudden, Scraps barges in, assuming there's a party going on, and crashes into the table upon which sit the fruit, knocking them to the floor where they burst. With that, Dorothy, Scarecrow and Tin Man return to their true forms. Ozma punishes the dwarf by ordering that he search out all of the enchanted trees, so that the Wizard, with his green lightning machine, can destroy them and save the enchanted prisoners.


Continuity Notes Dating: Story is set on the 10th anniversary of the building of the Tin Woodman's castle. For the first time, it's noted that the Tin Woodman had stood rusted for a year before Dorothy rescued him. This dating is confirmed in The Hidden Prince of Oz. The text also explains yet another way the Wicked Witch of the West obtained slaves. Why the Wizard would have built a green-lightning machine, however, is not explained.


The Apple-Pie Princess


Synopsis: When the Prince of Pumperdink loses his appetite, it takes a princess to restore it and become his wife.


Continuity Notes This placement is based on the idea (first espoused by Nathan Mulac DeHoff on his blog) that the prince is King Pompus (from Kabumpo in Oz) as a young man, with the Apple Pie Princess being Pozy Pink.






Sissajig and Other Surprises

The fifteenth and final Borderlands of Oz Book (Book #75 of the Supreme Seventy-Five)


This third collection of short Ruth Plumly Thompson stories and poems contains along with early fantasy work she had written for various publications, several references to places and personages that were incorporated in Oz, such as Patch, Sun-Top Mountain and, mostly famously, Pumperdink. There are as well several Oz shorts Thompson had written over the years.


Note: the following does not include non-fantasy stories, or poetry unless related to Oz.


Sissajig Stories


Adventures in Sissajig


Synopsis: Working at the Philadelphia bus terminal as a bag boy, Tommy King is given a bag by a grandmotherly woman named Susan Figg, who hands him a con and disappears. The bag is addressed to Sissajig, but Tommy doesn't know where that it is. The bag, Toggins, comes to life and carries Tommy up in the air to Sissajig where they meet the watchman of the castle, Bustabo, an archer who pretends to shoot arrows at them, but always missing, scaring off any who are not invited. Bustabo tells him that Susan is one of the best magish-owitches and gives Tommy a magic watch that warns him of danger.


Dropping Toggins off at Susan's house, a woman, Matiah, answers the door and brings Toggins in, but closes the door on Tommy. She opens it again, asking Tommy if he let the cat out of the bag. As he hadn't, she tosses him Toggins, and he opens the bag, letting an annoyed cat named Catherine out of the bag. Taking back the bag, she slams the door again, warning him to "mind the carriage!"


The watch soon serves to warn him of danger, as the former carriage of the king runs loose throughout the town. Tommy meets Susan's neighbor, the kindly Doctor Pillbilly, but as the riderless carriage draws near, he stops it. In so doing, he is proclaimed King Tommy due to an old custom that makes whoever stops the chariot king. Susan Figg soon joins him in the throne room, and he appoints her prime minister. He appoints the former Prime Minister Hickaboo Assistant King. Lunch is soon prepared by a talking nanny-goat named Milly.


Sissajig is a square magical country, which on the day of Tommy's coronation, is accosted by King Priddybad of Giddybad, who threatens to war against them. Tommy addresses Priddybad, asking why he's attacking, to which he responds that his kingdom is lonely and he's bored. Tommy then invites him to come and stay with them as a guest, an offer Priddybad gladly accepts.


After a time, Tommy realizes that he must return home and feed his rabbits and passes the coin to Doctor Pillybilly to become the next king, and Toggins returns him to the Philadelphia bus terminal.


Tommy and the Flying Slippers


Synopsis: Putting on his slippers one morning, Tommy goes flying out the window to a far-off rainbow that brings him down to beach where he discovers that the slippers he wears are not his own, but magic flying slippers made from a piece of the Magic Carpet of Bagdad. A silver arrow on them allows him to direct the slippers where they'll go. He soon meets Akwa Jack of Underseapia, a seafarer and discoverer from the ocean's depths collecting specimens and wearing a suit and helmet that allows him to breathe water while on land. Traveling together, they come upon a square shell, moat and castle, which leads Tommy to believe he's in Sissajg.


But the place he'd formerly visited was One City; this is Two City, ruled by the Duchess Guess Sue and the Duke Me Too, and the Duchess there is unfriendly, having her jester pinch Tommy when he claims to have been the king. When Jack stops this, he spills the water from his helmet on the Duchess' dresses, and she demands they be beheaded. Tommy and Jack decide it's time to leave, and discover a map and note inside one of the slippers.


Stopping off at clearing, they examine the map of Sissajig. The country is square, with the capitol is in the left corner, Two City in the right, and Three and Four Cities on the other corners, with a forest in-between and mountain in the middle.


The note is from Susan, explaining that she and Doc Pillbilly on Cube Island, which is on a lake on top of the mountain. Flying there, they meet Myohme, a female slave of the Witch of Cube Island. They free her and she warns them to find the lock box where she keeps her magic treasures. Tommy soon finds Susan and Doc, but they're enchanted in a kind of sleep.


When Tommy discovers a loose rock, the Witch Ruthless Rue accosts him. Jack leaps upon her, knocking off her red wig, without which she is powerless, as Jack finds out when he places it on his helmet. He disenchants Susan and Doc and discovers that in the lock box are two other wigs, a blonde one for flying, and a black one for casting spells. The red one grants wishes. Allowing the witch to flee, they return with Myohme by magic to One City and have a big party. After returning the girl to her family, Susan locks up the wigs in her safe. Tommy again says goodbye to everyone as Toggins returns him to his home.


Continuity Notes

Bustabo: The wicked chief archer and former usurper of Red Top Mountain in Ozoplaning with the Wizard of Oz appears again, this time as the kindly watchman of Sissajig. He had been transformed by Ozma at the end of that book into a red squirrel. How he ended up in Sissajig is unknown. He somehow crossed the Deadly Desert, either with the help of a bird, magic, or by Ozma's design herself, where he ended up on the island of Sissajig. At some point, he was disenchanted, either Ozma earlier, or by the magish-owitch Susan Figg. While he maintains his skills at archery, as well as his heavy brogue, his disposition is kindly and generous, as opposed to his former personality as King of the Kudgers.


Sissajig: This square country is an island, likely in the Nonestic. Fruits, vegetables and architecture are also squarish. In each corner of the kingdom is a city, of which Tommy visits One and Two in the two Sissajig stories. While One City is brightly colored, Two is noted as being predominantly blue, which is not unlike the Munchkin Country. Thompson notes that Tommy "found so much blue monotonous" [45]. In between the cities are forests, and in the center of the island is a mountain. Atop it lies a lake, in the middle of which is Cube Island, which up until the latter story was ruled by the Witch of Cube Island, Ruthless Rue, whose power comes from her three magical wigs.  Sissajig's nearest neighbor is Giddybad, which is described by its King Priddybad as a lonely place (so is probably another island). Animals talk in Sissajig and hold positions of prominence, as noted by Milly the nanny-goat who is the royal chef, and Catherine, Susan Figg's cat. But there are also wilder animals in the forest, such as a large bear and a giant sea turtle named Trudy who the witch had used to ride and to guard her prisoners.


Tommy King: With only two Sissajig stories published, it's unknown if Tommy King of Philadelphia ever returned to Sissajig to explore the other two cities.


The Magic Spectacles


Synopsis: The king determines that his daughter should be married, so commands all the princes from the surrounding realms to come, and the one with the best gift will marry his daughter. Numerous suitors arrive, but the one that catches the Princess attention brings a smoke-colored pair of magic spectacles with which she can see the "evil which exists in every creature's heart." Upon putting it on, she sees one of her ladies-in-waiting scolding and boxing the ears of children, another stealing a diamond necklace, and even her father counting money like a miser in a hidden cellar. She concludes that the world is a wicked place. The king puts them on and is disgusted with all that he sees, and becomes angry. But another prince named John arises and offers another pair of spectacles, these colored pink, which enable the wearer to "know your friends," but the first prince knocks him aside, and putting on the first pair again, she sees what a cruel and vicious man he is. She looks at the second prince with those glasses and nothing changes. So, putting on his pink glasses, she sees that lady-in-waiting takes patient care of her blind sister and other good points in everyone else. She marries the second prince.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Thompson hints that the story deals with "ancient kings," however one of the princes gives music boxes as a gift. Music boxes weren't invented until 1811. As to setting, because no one questions the possibility of magic spectacles, or is alarmed to find they work, this story likes takes place in a fairy country. Unusual for Thompson, there is no mention of the names of the kingdoms or even of the princess and her father. Only Prince John is mentioned.


The Little Prince and the Faithful Bluebird


Synopsis: When the king of the bluebirds and his subjects get lost in a storm, they find their way to castle prison. Dismayed, he determines to sing to cheer up the inhabitants. But one exhausted bluebird fails to leave with the king and his flock, one of the prisoners nurses him back to health. The prisoner is the prince of Bema, whose stepmother, the false Queen of Bema, spirited away so that her son might rule in his stead. The bird tells him to set her free and she'll get help, but the boy fears that she'll forget and not come back. But soon enough, he frees her, and the bird travels around looking for the Kingdom of Bema. At last she finds a deer who tells her that it is on the other side of the forest, and that the good prince had died, and in his place the new prince is vicious and cruel. The bluebird tells the deer that the true prince is yet alive and together they spread the news. The bluebird goes to the bedroom of the Queen and sings songs to prick her conscience, but she orders the bird killed. The bird then finds a maiden named Teckla who had once been friends with the king and who agrees to do what she can to save him. At summer's end, as preparations were underway for the coronation of the son of the wicked Queen, the people mourn their lost prince. The bluebird, with a ball of cord that the maiden had weaved, returns to the prison to affect the prince's escape. Meanwhile, Teckla heads to the neighboring kingdom to inform the king there of what has transpired. On the day of the coronation, the true prince arrives with the support of the king of the next realm, and the wicked Queen and her son are exiled. The true prince marries Teckla and the bird comes to visit them every year.


Continuity Notes

Dating: This is obscure, but appears to be the 1700s. The neighboring king's use of the archaic "Ods Ostriches" phrase is a play on "Ods bodikins," which appears in an 18th century English translation of Cervantes' Don Quixote.


Location: The only clues as far as where this story takes place come in the two names provided. The first is Bema, which is an ancient Hebrew and Greek word for "Seat of Judgment" (or elevated dais). In Eastern Christianity, the word bema is still used to represent the platform of the sanctuary. Teckla is the other name, and it is an ancient Greek word for "Divine Glory" that is used as a name in Nordic, Scandinvaian and Eastern European countries (usually as Tekla or Thekla). The setting begins in the summer with the bluebirds flying north from the Amazon in South America "for the long journey to our own land." It takes them three days to reach the Atlantic. Then the storm comes up, which makes the king decide to turn back to the coast. They lose their way in the dark, but the storm is described as being "short and violent" and not long enough to have brought them all the way up the Atlantic to the Norwegian Sea, where Eastern Europe begins. It appears this is a magical storm that brought them to an island in the Nonestican (or Rolantic or Nonentic) Ocean, a place in which it is not uncommon for humans to speak with animals.


Observation: One of Thompson's more Baumian stories, this somber animal fairy tale is free of the puns that usually characterize her work, though it does deal with her common theme of restoring rightful rulership.


Emperor Ching Wow


Synopsis: When the kind-hearted Emperor Ching Wow is besieged by his rebellious subjects and army, his camel Hoo Choo tells him to send his son to the Golden Dragon in the Woo Tang Mountains. Upon a giant kite, the Emperor's son Prince Chow flies before the dragon, explaining that Hoo Choo sent him. A great friend of the camel's, the Dragon calls upon Okra the mermaid witch to bring him the magic water, which he puts in Chow's wooden shoe. The boy flies back to the garden in which his father is under attack, and tells him the dragon's message to drink from the right side of the shoe. He does and grows into a giant, terrifying the people. Some water falls, which Hoo Choo drinks, growing giant as well. Some spills on a flower which grows giant and brings down a giant ladybug which terrifies everyone. When the Emperor asks the leader of the rebellion why he rebelled, he admits that he wanted to be Emperor, which Ching Wow makes him. Okra arrives to bring Ching Wow, Prince Chow and Hoo Choo to the Woo Tang Mountains where they live in peace. When the rebellious emperor dies, Prince Chow is returned to the throne to rule as Emperor.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Although this story is unconnected to Oz and Nonestica, set in China a few millennia ago, its Golden Dragon, mermaid-witch and magic water set it firmly in the fantasy vein. The Woo Tang Mountains is the Wudang Mountains of Hubei, China, which houses the Five Dragon Temple, and is associated with the god Xuan Wu, known as the Truly Martial Grand Emperor, who is capable of great magic and was said to once been a prince who felt the sorrow and pain of his people so much he retired to the mountains. Thompson may have rendered Xuan Wu as Ching Wow. If so, he ruled during the Shang Dynasty between 1600 and 1046 BC.


Land O'Patch


Synopsis: The offspring of a father who is a Fairy and a mother who is a wicked Witch, King Cross Patch vacillates between good and evil behavior, causing his people to become discontented. Then one day in a fit of anger he condemns his three sons to beheading. The ancient law of Patch determines that a command once given must be fulfilled or the kingdom will be forever destroyed. In order to save the kingdom from destruction, the young princes willingly agree to go to their deaths, but the king searches for another solution and takes his golden chariot to Fairyland to solicit the help of the fairies who'd often visited him in the past urging him to take a magic draught to dispel the evil part of him. As they cannot help, he goes to the Witches, but they rejoice that he's become as wicked as they and invite him to stay with them before he's destroyed with his kingdom. Returning despondent, his sons urge him to kill them, but at last the oldest wise man in the kingdom asks to hear the exact words the king had uttered and determines that the edict cannot be carried because it's impossible without a wizard to make a man's head into a bee's head, as no one can be "bee-head" except a bee.


Continuity Notes Patch first appeared in this story in January 1921 and was brought into Oz by Thompson six years later in The Gnome King of Oz, along with a Queen Cross Patch the Sixth. The Fairyland mentioned in this story may refer to Burzee, and as this story deals with the ruling presence of Witches (capitalized and plural), it likely takes place during the time in which the four wicked compass Witches were ruling Oz.


The Fairy's Silver Trumpet


Synopsis: When the Princess of Suntop Mountain, a fairy, refuses to marry any of the neighboring kings, war nearly breaks out. To prevent this, she agrees that whoever weds her must first prove worthy by blowing the silver trumpet. One after another kings from the west and south try and fail, until one young humble king asks to first hold her hand for help, and is able to blow music from the trumpet.


Continuity Notes Sun Top Mountain was later incorporated by Thompson in Kabumpo in Oz, where it appears in the Winkie country, and is the home of Princess Peg Amy. This story appears to tell the story of how Peg's mother met her father.


Background: Originally published in The Philadelphia Public Ledger, November 21, 1920. Available in Sissajig and Other Surprises, published by the International Wizard of Oz Club. It is also available on The Hungry Tiger Press website. Click on the title above to read this story there.


The Magic Pipe


Synopsis: When a rabbit finds the pipe of the Man in the Moon, he gets a surprise trip to the palace of the Man in the Moon.


Continuity Notes The story concludes with the rabbit selling a pair of shoes (obtained from the Man in the Moon as a reward) "to an old gnome for a sum that will keep them in carrots as long as they live." Several factors make this fit well in the overall Oz milieu. There is a talking rabbit, the Man in the Moon, and a gnome walking on land (where most keep underground) with a lot of money to spend on shoes. With the assumption that this is Ruggedo, the question then becomes which wandering period does this represent, the earlier one after "Alliance of the Elementals" when he is finally kicked out of the Nome Kingdom to wander Ev, or the one after The Magic of Oz that sees him wandering Oz. Since money is the thing that the rabbit needs to prosper, this must be Ev, as the rabbit community in Oz, Bunnybury, are not dependent on money to thrive.

The Princess of Plumpieland


Synopsis: After Vera Big the princess of Plumpieland turns down a marriage proposal from Tumbo of Timertonia, a suspected wizard from a mountain kingdom, a warning arrives dropped from a gigantic bird that unless the Princess of Plumpieland marries before dark, the country will be destroyed. The wise man Foozle suggests they do as it says, but the princess refuses to wed Tumbo. So, the frantic king sends out his guards who've heard of someone nice in the south.  The guards, Terry Blee Blue and Notso Blue, apprehend Jonathan, a bachelor king from the poor kingdom of Rockbottom, and bring him to their kingdom. But King Johnny points out that a better way would be to ensure that no darkness comes to Plumpieland, and they light all the lamps in the kingdom. He also ascertains that the princess has feelings for the Duke of Wopping, who if the current king abdicates temporarily to allow him to become king, the warning will be averted. The crisis averted, Jonathan suspects that Tumbo disguised a plane to drop the missile carrying the prophecy, and the king goes off with to have sport with Johnny.


Continuity Notes Due to the knowledge of planes and bombers, this story can take place anytime from 1918, the end of the first World War, to 1940, when the story was written. There is no clue as to where Plumpieland, Timbertonia or Rockbottom are located.


King, King! Double King!


Synopsis: In the kingdom of Rundlebury, the two twenty-year old identical twin princes, Jerrywon and Terrytwo, born three minutes apart, decide that they'd prefer to rule together, rather than have each be treated different. So the eldest, Jerryone, goes to the swordmaker Vanka to remove the chain and crown seal locked around his neck. Without it, no one can tell the young men apart. King Randy of Rundlebury is furious, however, but all the scientists and soothsayers can't help distinguish who is who. Finally, he brings in a shepherd Ramjan who leads the boys' steeds to them, and, indeed the horses are able to tell who their masters are. Ramjan is offered a reward by the wing, anything he wishes, and he wishes that both boys rule the kingdom together, and when the father dies, the "Twinks," as they come to be known rule wisely and well.


Continuity: As with several of Thompson's fairytales, there is no indication as to where Rundlebury is, or when this story takes place, and in this case, very little clues to go on.


The Enchanted Cat


Synopsis: When a thirty-year old scholar and judge who fancies himself wise in the ways of men throws a book at a cat that appears at his window, the cat—who is actually an ancient sorcerer with the power to shape-change—curses him to become a cat himself, and using a Switcheroo Spell, turns himself into the scholar and the scholar into a cat, until such a time as a man bids him to his hearth, a child looks on him without fear, and a woman brushes his coat. Shortly after, his former manservant kicks and chases him out of the house; he goes then to his brother's mansion and approaches his niece, Dorothy. But she screams upon seeing him and he's once more chased out into the cold alleyway. Thinking then of his fiancée, he leaps to her windowsill where he witnesses her scolding her grandmother and kicking her dog before she cruelly flings him out the window. Dismayed at the world, he passes into the poor section of town, expecting that they will treat him far worse. But a man picks him and brings him to his tenement apartment where a stove warms him, his granddaughter Nancy puts him in her lap, and her older sister combs him and bandages his leg. Even the dog makes room for him. With that, the spell is broken and he ends up back in his home, surprising the sorcerer who tells him that "cats know more about people than scholars." Humbled, he resolves to break off his engagement and visit again the home of the only people who showed him kindness.


Continuity Notes

As with "The Little Prince and the Faithful Bluebird," this is one of Thompson's most Baumian tales, echoing the primary theme of the Queer Visitors in the Marvelous Land of Oz strip, "Tim Nichols and the Cat." Free of puns and cozy kingdoms, the story effectively focuses on the more somber theme of cruelty to animals, wisdom and hubris, and works well alongside Baum's American or Animal Fairy Tales. One of the clues allowing readers to date the story is the scholar's long pompadour hairstyle, which was a product of the 18th century, particularly from 1745 to the end of the century when it fell out of favor for men.


The Switcheroo Spell: This is a spell Mombi employs frequently.


A Visit to Jelly Bean Island


Synopsis: After a day of selling peanuts and popcorn, Fred Baker suddenly appears before a plump king who wonders why he's there. A winged cat then appears announcing that she brought him there and will solve their problem. The Wishing Cat departs, and the housekeeper, Minerva Gaydash, introduces herself and King Jo-John of Jelly Bean Island. A large elephant, Jumbalena the Third, then appears, explaining that they're having trouble selling their crop of jelly beans. Putting Fred on her back, Jumbalena assures Fred he can go home on one of the ships that sail to Otherlands, and shows him the jelly bean vines whereupon grow their crop in all colors and sizes, the finest beans in Otherlands. Fred says they should get more customers and asks if they've advertised. The elephant likes the idea, but as to customers, the only island around there is Bigguns, which they never visit because it's an island of giants. Fred suggests that maybe they're friendly, and concludes that they're the biggest and best customers they'd ever find. The king is skeptical, but will fill a ship with jelly beans for Fred to peddle to them. Jumbalena agrees to go with him. Taking the Good Ship Jenny Jump, they sail to the island. They anchor within hailing distance and hold up a sign announcing they brought a gift. A giant farmer swims out and tastes the jelly beans. Liking them, he calls out until every one of the fifty giants who live there come forward. The giants eat all of the jelly beans, and the king giant writes "more jelly beans." Fred writes back that there are more for sale, and the giants agree, emptying their pockets of gold pieces which they put in a giant barrel that they give to them. They have a gold mine and mint coins for fun, so are glad to part with it. The giants then begin trade with Jelly Bean Island. As the king congratulates him, Fred sees the Wishing Cat again, and before he knows it he's back home, wondering if he'd dreamt the events. At home, the next morning, he finds a bag of jelly beans under his pillow and a sign the next day advertising jelly beans.


Continuity Notes

Jelly Bean Island: A fairyland with talking animals (Jumbalena the royal elephant also bears similarities to Kabumpo), magical flying cats and candy that grows on vines, the story "The Hearts and Flowers of Oz" brought Jelly Bean Island (and the friendly giant island of Bigguns) into the Nonestic, as a creation of the Red Jinn of Ev, and part of the larger Royal Kingdom of Cake (or Land of Dough Dough) from The Royal Baking Powder booklets.


Dating: If the ship Jenny Jump was named after the half-fairy, then the dating can be ascertained as taking place after her appearance in The Wonder City of Oz in 1937 and before the story's 1957 publication date.


Jenny Jump: The ship the Jenny Jump is clearly a nod to Thompson's late friend and former illustrator John R. Neill's character from The Wonder City of Oz.

The Bear Who Stayed Up Late


Synopsis: On year old Hugabee bear decides he's not going to hibernate for the winter and sneaks out of his cave, he determines to find someone to play with. He comes across Reginald Rufus, who tries to explain to him that the snows of winter are dangerous, as are human beings, but the bear doesn't believe it and wants to go live with them. The grandfather rabbit, realizing he'll get in trouble, tries to lure him back up the mountain to his cave, but the bear runs off again, excited about the newly falling snow. As the small bears sinks down against a tree, he some grows drowsy and falls asleep with the snow covering him. Before long, Dusty the dwarf comes along, and spotting the baby bear summons his fellow dwarves, Cholly, Wally, Gusty, Grim, Sandy, Andy, Billy and Slim to help him carry the bear back to their cave.


Continuity Notes The third animal fairy tale in the collection also bears a similarity to some of Baum's works, with its warning hint of death. There is no indication as to where this takes place, though the presence of dwarves, and the fact that the bear and rabbit can speak to one another (and no each other by name) is indication of its setting in a semi-fairyland where winter snows and humans can and still kill.

A Day in Oz


Synopsis: (Alterable Scene: First Version) Dorothy prepares a party for Ozma, whose been with Glinda in her castle for some time. Scraps and the Scarecrow sing. When Ozma returns she learns that the Wizard has invented a loseless umbrella. Ozma notes that she met a Vegetable Man, whose ear popped when he sat too close to the fire one night, but who was able to pick another one from the cornfield, and is coming to the Emerald City tomorrow. Ozma also announces that a new Oz book is out.


(Alterable Scene: Second Version) Pastoria arrives to tell Ozma that Jack Pumpkinhead lost his head. The Wizard thinks it was stolen to make pumpkin pie. Ozma says she'll carve him a new one, but her father says his body's gone too. He'd been making a new suit for Dorothy's party when he vanished. Scraps recites doggerel about the former Lost King, and Pastoria rejoins stating that he'd rather make people look right than act right, which is much harder. The Scarecrow puts on his magic expectacles, which allow him to see events before they happen and people before they arrive. With them, he sees Jack who is on his way to them. Jack tells everyone that his new book came out (Jack Pumpkinhead of Oz). Pastoria brings Jack along to try on his new suit, while everyone else goes to the party.


Continuity Notes The first "alterable scene" presents the first chronological appearance of Carter Green, the Vegetable Man, who Ozma first met while at Glinda's days before he arrived in the Emerald City in The Hungry Tiger of Oz. The book Ozma mentions as having just been released can only be The Emerald City of Oz due to the year in which this latter story must take place (1911). Yet, she tells Scraps that she's in the book, which she clearly isn't (The Patchwork Girl of Oz wasn't released until two years later in 1913). But it's possible that Ozma hadn't yet read the book, and the title alone wouldn't reveal who would be in it.


The second "alterable scene" must take place at a different time, as it deals with Jack Pumpkinhead discussing his new book (Jack Pumpkinhead of Oz) and the events that happened in it. Also, the Scarecrow has Kaliko's old expectacles (which Carter Green had taken when in the Nome Kingdom in the book The Hungry Tiger of Oz).







The Curious Cruise of Captain Santa

Synopsis: In Christmas Country, Santa Claus tells Jim, a once-homeless chimney-sweep that he adopted years ago, that this year they're going on a sea-voyage to discover new toys and games for the kids, and maybe even find the Lost Islands where there are living toys. Santa reveals that he's built a ship, the Chimneypot, and will bring along Jim, Huggerumbo the polar bear and Penny the penguin. With the help of the Brownies and Barrel Birds (which have hollow barrels that can be used to transport goods), Santa loads up his ship with goods to trade.


With Santa and Huggerumbo on the wheel, Penny as lookout and cook, and Jim sweeping the decks and helping Penny, they sail south. Soon enough they encounter a green chimney poking up from the sea and anchor the ship to investigate. At its bottom is an old man with a crown sitting by a fountain periodically wetting himself from it. The room itself is a glass enclosure. Santa gives some of the gum drops he brought with him, which he eats, and then the mouth organ, which he plays for a long time. Huggerumbo recognizes that it's Neptune. Neptune explains that this is his listening chamber from which he gets the news of the sea, and which he can move around, but not stay too long in because of the dryness. He'd heard of Santa but didn't think he was real. Santa explains their mission and the search for the Lost Islands which a gull had told him of. Neptune says it's on the other side of the sunset, south by west through the opening the sun leaves in the sky when it sets. Then as Neptune must depart, he hands Santa a chest and sends them up a waterspout where they climb upon Huggerumbo's back and swing to their ship. Penny's relieved to see them, but reports that someone at their anchor (which was made of hard candy). Neptune surfaces with an iron anchor to replace the one his mermaids ate. Waving goodbye, Santa examines the chest to find coral necklaces, toy pirate ships and aquarium decor.


Ten days into their journey south, now in the tropics, they come across the desert island of Bombazooky. They collect coconuts and palm tree leaves, but are soon accosted by natives that Jim fears might be cannibals. Each in turn tries to speak their language but in vain, until Santa spots a child. Knowing he can speak baby-talk, and that baby-talk is the same everywhere, he discerns that their language is called Zook, and Bomba is their chief. He also learns that they plan to make soup of them for dinner. Not wanting to visit violence upon them, Santa hands out the toffee he brought with them. The natives enjoy until their mouths stick, at which point the chief thinks it is a trap. Remembering their jump ropes, Santa has everyone begin skipping rope furiously, which knocks aside the spears that the natives throw at them. Startled by this phenomenon, the cannibals flee, leaving them finish gathering coconuts. Exploring, Jim brings back a parrot, while Penny brings back three baby alligators.


Three rainy days later, they come to the edge of the sky and hit its descending wall. Afterwards, a gate in the wall opens which the Chimneypot sails through. On the other side of the sunset gate they find themselves in a beautiful realm. One sign marks the distance to Rockaway Island, which Santa knows is one of the Toy Islands. There they set anchor and explore. True to its name, the island rocks back and forth. Soon a herd of wild wooden animals come out, all rocking animals. Jim mounts the rocking elephant and leads all 400 of the rest to the hold of the ship. Noticing that Penny's missing, Huggerumbo returns to the island and finds her in a crystal candy chamber of all colors and shapes. Filling up their magic sack, they depart for the second Toy Island.


On Doll Island, they're amazed by the community of doll people and their city. At the king's castle, Santa lifts up the roof to peer in, shocking a guard who hits a red button that pops out a Jack-in-the-Box, which is the king. Santa converses with him in the doll language of Squeak about his mission to bring some of them to the good boys and girls for Christmas. Though they'd never heard of Christmas, the dolls are excited to go and many volunteer. The King agrees to let him take half of the dolls and their houses and shops. He's receiving a shipment of imported dolls and needs the room anyway. He reminds Santa to bring glue to repair them with, and warns him that night is coming in four hours. It only comes once every eight months, but lasts a hundred years.


With the dolls in tow they sail back out through the sunset gate, but once on the other side, the dolls and wooden animals cease to live. Santa is concerned that no one will believe they were once alive, but his crew seems unconcerned, and he concludes that "they're mighty fine even as they are," and that perhaps with enough love they'll come to life again. A cranberry jelly fish marks the fact that they're back on top of the world again and soon sail into Christmas Cove, hoping to go on another voyage again in the future.


Continuity Notes

Characterization of Santa: While some have found the characterization of Santa difficult to reconcile with the character L. Frank Baum depicted in The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, e.g., Claus is more impetuous and less philosophical in this story, this can be chalked up to authorial style, most of which stem from Thompson's peculiar apathy in certain areas that Baum was more thoughtful about. It has also been centuries since the events in Baum's tales. Baum's Santa, an orphan, is nicely paralleled here, where he adopts the orphan Jim, who is one of the few Thompson characters besides Bob-up (in The Cowardly Lion of Oz) to come from an impoverished socioeconomic background. On the other hand, Santa's reaction to the inadvertent killing of the live wooden animals from Rockaway Island and the four hundred sapient dolls who volunteered to go with him from Doll Island, is highly inconsistent with the Santa Baum wrote about. Thompson's Santa reacts with upset that no one will believe they were ever alive, rather than dismay at their deaths or the fact that his direct actions caused hundreds of living creatures to die. Baum's Santa would have immediately returned them to their original homes in the hope of restoring their lives; Thompson's Santa merely contents himself with the fantastic notion that maybe they'll come back to life if they're loved enough. Of course, Baum's Santa would not have been abducting living creatures, parrots, alligators, and sapient toys from their homes to give as toys in the first place! The stark difference between the air-headed, almost callous Santa of Thompson's, and the thoughtful, other-centered character of Baum's is nearly enough to render this story as unconnected to Baum's universe, at least not without a reasonable retcon that reconciles the two versions.


Dating: Story takes place over the course of what appears at first to be 13 days, but what is more likely 26 days, as it took them thirteen days to reach the sunset gate and presumably the same amount of time to return to Christmas Country. Their distractions with Neptune and Bombazooky don't appear to take longer than a few hours. The later events following this story are listed as a news item in the third issue of the 1926 Ozmapolitan. As per that issue, the story is set in late November, early December 1925. 


Barrel Birds: These unusual-looking birds reappear in an illustration for The Gnome King of Oz, and in text in Lucky Bucky in Oz.


Jim: The chimney-sweep that Santa adopted is a story that was told by Thompson several years earlier in a 1919 Philadelphia Public Ledger poem called "An Old Old Story."


North Pole: Although Thompson chose to go with the more popular story of Santa living in the North Pole, specifically in "The Christmas Country," as opposed to the Laughing Valley of Burzee where Baum places him in The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus and A Kidnapped Santa Claus, this is not necessarily a contradiction as it is several centuries later, and things might have changed. Several modern stories, such as Mrs. Pickering Goes to Oz, retconned this, indicating that Santa either moved to the North Pole later on, or has a toy-making facility in both locations. What runs contrary to this is that in Baum's tale, the reindeer are not Santa's to move about, but the King of the Rooks, who allow Santa to utilize them under strict regulations. One interesting fact about The Christmas Country is that no one "grows up or grows old." It's a land of talking animals. How it became a magical, immortal land like Oz is unknown, but it stands to reason that Christmas Valley is not really in the North Pole, but can be accessed from it.


Parallels: The chimney that sticks out of the sea is similar to the hole in the sea that brought Captain Salt to Seewegia in Captain Salt in Oz.






The Wonder Book

Although not considered a "Borderlands of Oz" book, this first collection of short Ruth Plumly Thompson short stories, poems and miscellanea from the Philadelphia Public Ledger contains some stories that fit within the larger Ozian mythology. Note that non-fantasy stories, beast fables, Brownie stories, non-Oz related poems and non-fiction pieces are not listed here. This includes the Supposyville "Handy Mandy" poems, which though unrelated to the Handy Mandy of Oz fame, is a character and place that exists in Oz.


Marvelous Travels on a Wish aka. The Wish Express

Synopsis: When a young boy wishes to be somewhere else, he is whisked away to a train of characters heading Somewhere Else


Continuity Notes The land of Somewhere appears again in The Enchanted Island of Oz, although the political structure has apparently changed, as it is ruled by Queen Else, rather than the Royal Illusion and Delusion. It is thus a happier place than the one revealed in this earlier adventure.


Strange Story of a Green Camel


Synopsis: When a green camel laments the rejection he receives amongst his fellow camels, elves grant him a wish and he becomes their camel.


Continuity Notes Elves and talking green camels make this an Ozzy enough tale, though it more likely takes place on the Nonestican coast or on one of its islands.


The Giant Who Did Not Believe in People


Synopsis: When a reckless giant who doesn't believe people exist nearly destroys ten cities and three villages, the fairies appeal to the Man in the Moon, whose wife rains down three tubs of water that shrinks him to people-size. Sent into a city, he soon believes in people and learns to be more careful when he walks.


Continuity Notes The Man in the Moon makes several appearances in Oz-related stories, the first being Queen Zixi of Ix.


The Runaway Rocking-Horse


Synopsis: When Santa delivers toys, a rocking-horse and other toys break away, not wishing to go to wealthy children, and find their way to the homes of poor child.


Continuity Notes This Christmas poem goes along well with Thompson's The Curious Cruise of Captain Santa and even Baum's conception in The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus. The Sandman makes a brief appearance.


The Magic of the Secret Word


Synopsis: When a farmer boy receives a magic word from a fairy that allows him to make wishes, he wishes himself into a fly to escape his master's wrath, and then a giant who shakes his master up. He wishes himself rich and then into a great singer, but his main amusement is to change himself into different shapes. One day a farmer suggests he wish himself wise, but the boy goes off resentful and meets a girl who challenges himself to change into a blade of grass. When he does, she picks it and feeds it to her goat.


Continuity Notes The story's premise of a fairy granting a mortal the ability to make wishes bears resemblance to Baum's Queen Zixi of Ix, a concept that traces back to Aladdin's story in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, as well as The Monkey's Paw. The boy's ability and desire to frequently change shapes, is reminiscent of the Phanfasms and Yookoohoos, but his disregard for wisdom is more akin to the former.


How the Mice Folks Escaped the Gnomes


Synopsis: In the days when mice were slaves of the gnomes, the younger mice begin holding secret meetings to discuss the rights of mice and search for a way to escape their oppression. The Gnome King grows angry because the Fairy Queen continually rebuffs his offers to visit his underground palace, so he plots to abduct her youngest princess. On the very day, one of the mice goes off to warn her, and she places an invisible wall around the princess. Determined to reward him, the mouse begs for the release of his comrades. This she grants, and the mice are freed. Not only are the gnomes' spells unable to recall them, but each mouse has a magic word against gnomes.


Continuity Notes

Gnome King: Though written whimsically, the story's Gnome King, underground palace, oppressive gnomes and problems with the fairy queen are in line with what is revealed in the larger mythology of Oz, though it likely deals with an ancestor of Ruggedo.


Dating: That the mice can reason and speak with gnomes and fairies places this after the 1743 enchantment of Oz, assuming that's the country this story takes place in. Other options include Burzee and An, which were enchanted earlier and would place this story in an earlier period.





Supposyville Stories

Thompson's Supposyville stories were never collected in a single collection. While some appear in The Wonder Book and The Wizard of Way-Up and Other Wonders, not a few remain un-reprinted, or only available in various issues of the Philadelphia Public Ledger or the Baum Bugle.


Stories: The following list contains all the known Supposyville stories. There may yet be additional ones.


The Solemn, Most Solemn Proclamation

A Supposyville Happening Is a Circus

The Wicked Stranger's Visit to Supposyville

A Rainy Day in Supposyville

The Lord High Hobbyist

His Highness, Trip-A-Measure

Inventions of Sir Solomon Tremendous Wise

More Supposyville Happenings

A Narrow Escape for the King and the Queen

Sir Solomon Tremendous Wise's Surprise

The Supposies Take to Ski-ing

Supposyville Goes Tobogganing

Inventions in Supposyville

The Supposyville Flag

Supposyville Prepares for Spring

Spring Sports in Supposyville

An Experience with Sleep Grains

Spring Housecleaning in Supposyville

A Hair-Raising Happening in Supposyville

Supposyville Goes Sailing

The High Pie Test in Supposyville

The Complaint Department in Supposyville

Sir Solomon's Latest Invention

Children's Day in Supposyville

Pink Mondays in Supposyville

The Royal Sleigh of Supposyville

A New Invention

Handy Mandy, Solomon T. Wise's New Cook

The Carrying Off of Handy Mandy


Continuity Notes

Maybe Mountains: The Maybe Mountains were first noted in Thompson's Supposyville narrative poem, "The Supposyville Flag" (1918), where it is stated that "Although the exact location of Supposyville has never been discovered, it may be said upon good authority that this delightful and amazing Kingdom lies between the Maybe Mountains and the Valley of Somewhere on the Nearlyso River." While the latter location does not appear anywhere else, Somewhere appears in the Gillikin Country (see The Enchanted Island of Oz), making it seem that Supposyville, like the Maybe Mountains, can be found in the Winkie Country.


Handy Mandy: This earlier and unrelated seven-armed character called Handy Mandy was created by Thompson for her Supposyville stories. She was a robot invention of the Supposyville Wizard and was quite unlike the Mernite girl in every way but appearance. As per Lurline and the White Ravens of Oz (third edition), however, these characters (and Supposyville) exist in Oz and are known of by the Mernite Handy Mandy.





Uncollected Thompson Short Stories

Click on any of the titles to read them at Hungry Tiger Press's Tiger Tales


As with the stories in Thompson's published collections, only those which meet certain criteria are included. This leaves out Thompson's non-fantasy stories, mundane beast fables, brownie stories, or any story that is geared for little children (e.g., flower fairy stories). Those Thompson's poems and shorts don't have a narrative are not included here either. This remains a growing list. It is hoped that Hungry Tiger Press or the International Wizard of Oz Club may one day collect them.


The Story of Ogre Too Thake


Synopsis: A traveler discovers a hideous palace filled with teeth of all kinds. It is ruled by a nasty ogre who takes them from children and dentists to build a palace for his daughter.


Continuity Notes

Dating and observation: An uncharacteristic horror story from Thompson, it serves mainly as a warning to children to brush their teeth, but also presents an interesting narrative and villain set in an unnamed land where children are starting to more frequently employ dental hygiene, which dates this story to the mid-to-late-nineteenth century.


The Faithless Knight


Synopsis: After bringing his realm and person into ruin, Sir Garen, a profligate knight attempts to commit suicide by jumping into the nearby lake, only to discover an underwater kingdom guarded by two sea serpents, but where a beautiful and kind princess and her royal parents welcome him into their homes and lives. As a test, however, the princess gives him the key to their treasury. Succumbing to the temptation, the knight takes jewels and riches and returns to his castle where he restores his fortune and wins the hand of a local duchess. Six months later, at the wedding, the River People arise to exact vengeance, destroying the kingdom and leaving behind the words: "He who breaks faith with the river people will repent!"


Continuity Notes

Dating and observation: As with "The Story of Ogre Too Thake," this is a darker story that Thompson unfortunately wrote too rarely, but which suits her well. The knight dates this story to be between the 8th and 12th Centuries.


The Trees That Were Bewitched


Synopsis: When lovers Cleon and Mertha happen upon the crooked witch Grumblegrimkins, who is angry at not having found the copper-leafed clover she needs, she transforms them into trees, placing a curse upon them they will remain in that form for a hundred years until someone thanks them for the shade they provide. As winter comes and they shiver in the cold, Mertha thinks to herself that were she herself she would be grateful for every living, growing thing in the world. Summer passes, and then in October a thief comes to hide in Mertha's tree, hoping to escape the detection of the soldiers pursuing him. When they pass by, he thanks the tree and Martha disenchants back into herself and thanks him. She tell him her story and then thanks Cleon's, disenchanting him as well. Amazed by the tale, the thief becomes an honest man.


Continuity Notes

Dating and observation: Another fascinating and uncharacteristic dark fable about the importance of gratitude that sees two commoners as protagonists and the hero a thief (albeit one who reforms). With no indication as to when this story might take place, The Royal Timeline of Oz places it in the 18th century. The untold story of the crooked witch Grumblegrimkins begs to be explored.


The Story of a Stone Lion


Synopsis: When a stone lion overhears birds pitying him, saying they'd rather live for five minutes happy than five centuries as stone, the lion begins to think on this and feel himself lonely. One day he weeps a tear, evoking the presence of the garden fairy who transforms him into a robin.


Continuity Notes

Dating and observation: Similar to the Biblical proverb "a live dog is better off than a dead lion," (Ecc 9:4), this short echoes the fate of Mustafa's 10,000 lions at the end of The Cowardly Lion of Oz, and is thus placed a few years after that event.


The Witch's Well


Synopsis: When a kindhearted prince who'd been robbed of his inheritance by his two brothers travels through a strange land, he comes across a hideous witch tied to a well, feeding water to monsters. When the goblins come to taunt her, however, he plays his silver flute, drawing them away from her. Having never been shown kindness, she offers him a wish, but the prince wishes that she was not a witch. Suddnely, she is transformed to a beautiful princess! She explains that because she turned down a marriage proposal from the wicked magician Crumblesticken, he transformed her into the witch. The prince and princess marry.


Continuity Notes

Dating and observation: One of Thompson's earliest disenchantment stories, though a good one that reverses and rests on the fairytale trope of the princess showing kindness to and kissing a frog. In this case, the point is made even stronger of showing kindness to others despite their appearance. As there is no indication as to time or place, the Royal Timeline of Oz places it in the 19th century.


The Orphan Dragon


Synopsis: When a poor lonely dragon loses his parents in an earthquake, he sets out in search of someone to befriend. Not the violent kind, he attempts to approach lions and elephants, but they flee in terror every time they see him. Walking forty days and nights, he comes to an Eskimo village in the North Pole and there saves a young boy from freezing. The boy greets him and brings him home to his parents who open their hearts and home to him.


Continuity Notes

Dating and observation: A rare friendly dragon story from Thompson, the text mentions a Kansas cyclone and a lion who's cowardly, references to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. It also features a land where dragons can communicate with lions and elephants, and a possible setting in the 18th or 19th centuries.


North Pole: The dragon's access to the North Pole is similar to the way in which the inhabitants of Mo can travel to the North Pole, and indicates a portal to fairyland in that region. Other fantasies and fairytales of the era seem to indicate this, as well, and further exploration is required.


The Story of the Four Little Orphan Rabbits


Synopsis: After being orphaned, four brother rabbits determine to make their way in the world by splitting up and returning to their original home two years later. When they do, they each tell their tale. Terry found a cave in which lived a sickly lion who he restored to health. The Lion made him prime minister; Peter came upon a boy who believed he could make his mother, the queen, who hasn't laughed in seven years, laugh. When he does he becomes a court favorite. Jonathan befriended a fish, offering to be his watchmen. So successful was he at warning fish of the danger of fishermen, the fish brought him treasures from beneath the sea that he built his own castle. Little Bill came upon a grove wherein was a lost fairy boy. Taking him in his arms and comforting him, he finds himself transported to a circle of fairies, who reward him by allowing him a special place in "fairyland" where there are no other animals. Promising to meet each other again every year, they return to their respective homes.


Continuity Notes This tale of resourcefulness and adventure takes place in a land where animals (including fish) all talk, humans and animals converse, and fairies exist, which makes a likely candidate for taking place in Oz after Lurline's enchantment, but before deathlessness has fully spread to the land. The "fairyland" that Bill finds himself in may be Burzee, though it can be any one of several fairylands where a safe place for him is carved out. It would be curious to know, and given the wealth and finery that each rabbit later appears in, if they ever learn of Bunnybury. Another curiosity is the "fairy boy" and his mother. Fairies don't by nature have children unless, of course, they break the law, or adopt a child (as they did with Neclaus who became Santa Claus: see The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus).


The Good Little Mermaid


Synopsis: When a fisherman catches a young mermaid amongst his fish, she begs that he throws the dying fish back overboard, promising that she'll come with him if he does. The fisherman obeys and then rows her to his poor hut, but she secretly despairs of being taken out of the water. Aware of her plight, the kindly fisherman throws her back into the water, asking her to visit him and his wife some time. Although the couple goes hungry that night, the fisherman's wife agrees it was the right thing to do. The next day he goes fishing, he brings up a heavy net filled with all manner of treasure from sunken ships, a reward from the maiden.


Continuity Notes This tale of a self-sacrificing mermaid and kindhearted fisherman (and wife) can very well take place in Nonestica or the outside world.


An Old Old Story


Synopsis: Poem that details how a chimney sweep came to be rescued by Santa.


Continuity Notes This is the back-story of Jim the Chimney sweep in The Curious Cruise of Captain Santa. While this could take place in the 18th century, Neill's illustration in the latter book portrays a boy dressed in the typical 19th century style.


The Singing Monarch


Synopsis: When a princess arrives upon a white mare at the gate of the Clef Kingdom, adjacent to the Scale Domain, she is asked to match her voice to the note played by the tuning fork of a shepherd, a test that all who wish to enter the musical kingdom must adhere to if they're to gain admittance to the realm of singing, dancing and merrymaking. Those who cannot are not permitted, and those who reside there, but are guilty of hoarseness, scolding, loud talk, or sadness are punished by having to remain silent for a month. Whoever persists in sadness is exiled for a year. The princess, however, declines to sing or even speak. The King is beside himself, as he finds her the most beautiful and fair maiden ever, and begs his Prime Minister to allow an exception to their rule. Yet, the Prime Minister argues that all outsiders would have to be excused their rule, and before long their kingdom would be overrun by loud and obnoxious sounding individuals. Yet, so enamored is the King of her that he summons his wise men, but they are unable to come to agreement. Finally, the shepherd strikes the princess across the hand! The king comes close to killing the shepherd, who explains that in so doing this, he discovered that the princess is mute, which is why she does not comply with the law. Upon learning this, the king flings open the gates and allows her in, at which point she begins to sing exquisitely. The king then endeavors to marries the princess, who had sought to test him to see that he loved her first for who she was.

Continuity Notes

Dating: No date is given, but it appears to an older story.

Scale Dominion and Clef Kingdom: The Royal Timeline of Oz postulates that various musical communities in Oz were established by the same royal house from the Scale Dominion. Thus, the Clef Kingdom, which is noted as being adjacent to the Scale Dominion, was recently founded by the unnamed and unmarried King of this story (who regretted creating the law of the land when he meets the princess). The Winkie community of Tune Town, from The Gnome King of Oz, was also likely established by royalty from the Scale Dominion, and may even lie within or near the Clef Kingdom (though that is uncertain), and was likely established by Queen Jazzma, who is some kind of relation to the King, though whether a daughter, younger sister or cousin, is not yet known. The Munchkin community of Musicton, in the Munchkin Country, from The Invisible Inzi of Oz, was likewise similarly established by a royal relation or noble.








Gone with the Hurry-Cane

A Tale of Love, Magic, and Monsters During the Evian Civil War

Read this story here

Synopsis: Forthcoming


Continuity Notes Forthcoming






Back to the Royal Timeline of Oz









The Wonderful Wizard of Oz


History: The very first book that launched the Oz series, and still its most well-known to date, due in part to the 1939 MGM musical adaptation The Wizard of Oz. The number of publishers that have brought this book into print are countless. For the sake of brevity and continuity, I've only indicated the Dover, Del Rey and Books of Wonder editions for modern publishers because these have published nearly the entire Baum canon and are widely available. For a more complete list of old and modern publications, please see


Synopsis: In this book we meet Dorothy, Toto, Uncle Henry and Aunt Em from Kansas (near Topeka according to the 1904 Ozmapolitan and The Emerald City of Oz). In Oz, Dorothy meets Boq, the Mayor the Munchkins and three Munchkins, the Good Witch of the North, who gives her an enchanted kiss on the forehead that protects her. Dorothy frees the Scarecrow from his pole, the Tin Woodman from rust, and the Cowardly Lion from his boorish behavior, all while following the Yellow Brick Road. The Queen of the Field Mice later rescues Dorothy and the Cowardly Lion from the Deadly Poppy Field. Once in the Emerald City, readers are introduced to the Guardian of the Gates, Jellia Jamb (though she won't be named until the next book), the Soldier with the Green Whiskers (who won't be named Ombi Amby until Ozma of Oz) and Oscar Diggs, the Wizard, who is at this time, a clever humbug.


Dorothy's house crushes the Wicked Witch of the East, ending her tyranny of the Munchkins in the east, and Dorothy herself accidentally causes the melting of the Wicked Witch of the West, ending her dominion of the Winkies in the west.


Following the Wizard's departure, and a surprise to those who've only seen the film, Dorothy and her friends travel south, where they pass through the Forest of Fighting Trees and hill of the Hammer-heads (although their exact location is later amended by Baum to be further south—see The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz for a retcon), the Dainty China Country (a resident of whom is depicted on film in Oz the Great and Powerful), and meet the Hungry Tiger (though not yet named) before reaching Glinda the Good in her palace in the southern end of the Quadling Country, who at last sends her home.


Continuity Notes

Bees: The bees that the Wicked Witches throws against Dorothy and her companions are the black bees of the wizard Krizzle Kroo, which became subject to the Silver Whistle ("The Woozy's Tale" in Oziana 1992). The Wicked Witch also had access at one time to the Stinging Bees of the wizard Wisp, a bitter man from the Mountains of Moran in Ivalane (The Ork in Oz), who trained them, and traded them to the Wicked Witch of the West in exchange for magic.


Boq: Boq appears again in Father Goose in Oz, and with his wife Johanna in The Hollyhock Dolls in Oz and Bucketheads in Oz. He creates Mortimor Mix to help keep the Road of Yellow Bricks in repair, in The Tin Castle of Oz.


Dating: This story takes place over the course of 52 days (see the Day-to-Day Chronology). See also the Appendices: Dating the Early Oz Books. The first story in Denslow's Scarecrow and Tin-Man newspaper strip, "Dorothy's Christmas Tree" gives us an approximate start-and-end date for this story as beginning on November 12 and concluding on January 2nd when she returns to Kansas.


Deadly Poppy Field: Created by Glinda in 1892 to slow down the armies of the Wicked Witches of the East and West when they were advancing on the Emerald City (How the Wizard Came to Oz). In the early years of Ozma's reign, the Deadly Poppy Field is uprooted. Bunches of poppies are given to Quadling families, while different flowers are planted in the field, leaving only scattered patches of poppies, and a single narrow stripe (too narrow to be dangerous) on the southern border of the Emerald City. See The Hollyhock Dolls in Oz.


Dogs in Oz: As with most generalizations, the indication that Toto is the first dog in Oz is contradicted by Baum. In The Marvelous Land of Oz, Jack Pumpkinhead encounters a green dog in the Emerald City, and the rabbits of Bunnybury (in The Emerald City of Oz) say they are frightened of dogs. Recognizing this mistake, later authors felt no compunction against revealing various dog communities in Oz.


Gayelette: A beautiful princess and sorceress who lives in a Ruby Castle (made of tourmaline) in the North. Gayelette is responsible for the creation of the Golden Cap, which gives whoever wears it power over the Winged Monkeys (a thing she did to punish the winged monkeys who dropped her fiancée in a lake on their wedding day), and the Silver Whistle, which put the magical black wolves, crows and bees of Krizzle Kroo under the power of the whistle (Oziana 1992's "The Woozy's Tale"). The Wicked Witches obtained both of these magical implement and used them to evil ends, which may be why Gayelette never petitioned for a license to practice magic. That she lives in a red-colored castle in the purple country of the Gillikins is explained in The Winged Monkeys of Oz, where Gayelette and Quelala reappear. Gayelette was beloved by the people she helped, but never appears again in any early stories. Angry that every man she found was either stupid or ugly, she "found a boy who was handsome and many and wise beyond his years." Determining to make him her husband, she used her magic powers to "make his as strong and good and lovely as any woman could wish." When he grew older, she married him. His name was Quelala. As revealed in "The Woozy's Tale," Oziana 1992, Quelala was her cousin. Marrying cousins was quite common for royals in history. In The Winged Monkeys of Oz, it's also revealed that she's Glinda's mother, but by another man who went to the outside world. As Glinda also spent time in the outside world when she was young ("The Solitary Sorceress of Oz," Oziana 2011), and returned with no memory, this man might have been John "Doctor" Dee. See "The History of Glinda" in the Appendices for more information.


Giant Spider: The giant spider who the Cowardly Lion beheaded was created by a standard-sized spider by the Wicked Witch of the West to destroy Glinda (How the Wizard Came to Oz). Glinda sent the creature far off into the Great Forest. After the Lion beheaded her, she later found her head and shrunk back to standard spider size (The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz), indicative of the magical enchantment that she underwent. She had a son named Fiddle, who was born giant-sized (Oziana 2010: "Fiddle's Revenge,") likely due to the fact that he was birthed during the time she was also giant-sized.


Hammerheads: The origin of the Hammerheads, and their purpose, is detailed in The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz. Glinda has since had a road built circumventing their territory.


Interpolation: Several stories interpolate this one, including Oziana 2011's "Cryptic Conversations in a Cornfield," which details the origins of the Scarecrow, Oziana 2002's "Cat and Mouse in Oz," and, "Dreaming in a Scarlet Slumber," which occurs while Dorothy is asleep in the Poppy Field. Also, as mentioned above, W.W. Denslow's first newspaper strip, "Dorothy's Christmas Tree" occurs while Dorothy is in the Emerald City before the Wizard departs.


Kalidahs: The three kalidahs who attack Dorothy and her companions appear again in The Master Crafters of Oz. This is in keeping with the idea that few die in Oz, even at this time, and that their fall, while damaging (they've been reassembled), did not destroy them. Other kalidahs appear again Father Goose in Oz, The Magic of Oz, Bucketheads in Oz, Maybe the Miffin, "Gugu and the Kalidahs," Toto of Oz, and others. Baum notes that "nearly all" the kalidahs are tame by the time of The Emerald City of Oz. This must exclude the kalidah woods bordering the Forest of Gugu in the Gillikin Country, as well as individual groups or tribes.


Munchkin River: In the early years of her reign Ozma has a bridge rebuilt over the Munchkin River, rejoining the Road of Yellow Brick, which had been bifurcated by the loss of the bridge. The town of Herville also arises on the east side of it in this time, run by Brigadier Tanjrine, formerly of the General Jinjur's army. See The Hollyhock Dolls in Oz.


Quelala: The husband of Gayelette is given the Hebrew name qelalah, which means malediction or curse, though no story as of yet has explored this. In The Winged Monkeys of Oz, Quelala is described as a shy but loyal husband to Gayelette.


Queen of the Field Mice: Named Rodaina in The Winged Monkeys of Oz, the Queen of the Field Mice makes several reappearances in later Oz books, including How the Wizard Saved Oz, The Marvelous Land of Oz, Eureka in Oz, The Road to Oz (illustration), The Hollyhock Dolls in Oz, Ruggedo in Oz, and The Emerald City Mirror arc, "The Talking Spell."


Silver Whistle: One blow of the magical Silver Whistle summons 40 wolves. Two blows summons 40 crows. Three summons a swarm of black bees. As revealed in Oziana 1992's "The Woozy's Tale," the Silver Whistle belonged to Gayelette. To punish the wizard Krizzle Kroo who terrorized the Gillikin people, she made his wolves, crows and bees subject to the Silver Whistle. She failed, however, to capture the queen bee, and when Krizzle Kroo grew a new army of black bees, he joined forces with the Wicked Witch of the West to overthrow her. Craftily, for she'd promised Krizzle Kroo the Silver Whistle in exchange for her help, she claimed the Silver Whistle could not be found, and kept it for herself. As revealed in The Ork in Oz, the Wicked Witch also enchanted the whistle to summon the wizard Wisp, who also commanded an army of stinging bees. She doesn't summon him in this story because she recognized that bees were ineffectual against Dorothy and her companions.


The Stork: The stork reappears in three stories, The Lavender Bear of Oz, A Promise Kept in Oz, where her name Herrona first appears, and A Small Adventure in Oz.


The Tin Woodman of Oz: The reason Nick Chopper wasn't killed in the process of losing his limbs is due to time-magic employed by the Wicked Witch of the East. See Paradox in Oz. It's confirmed in "The Enchanted Tree of Oz" and The Emerald City Mirror #58, that he stood rusted for one year before Dorothy and the others found and oiled him.


The Wicked Witches: As revealed in How the Wizard Came to Oz, the name of the Wicked Witch of the West is Morella. The name of her sister, the Wicked Witch of the East, is Lady Malvonia, the latter whose proper title was the Wise Witch of the East, as revealed in her early history in The Magic Umbrella of Oz.


The Wizard's arrival in Oz: The Wizard states in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz that he ruled in Oz "for many years" [p. 195], which indicates that he had been in Oz for some time prior to Dorothy's arrival. Hot-air ballooning did not take off in circuses and traveling fairs until 1871, months after Leon Gambetta's highly publicized balloon escape from the Prussian armies in Paris to Southern France, after which ballooning sprang up overnight across circuses and fairs (for more information, see this article). After only a few years, however, solo balloon shows were no longer trendy or novel, and circuses had to add acrobats to spice things up.


A point has been made that the Wizard’s city of origin, Omaha, was not established until 1854, thereby limiting Oscar Diggs' age, however, he may have been born in the region of Omaha prior to it being named such, as Omaha is the name of the Native American tribe that lived in that region, and it appears to have been called Omaha from as early as 1813 when Manuel Lisa established a large trading post there. 







Continuity note: While most of Gregory Maguire's work is found in the non-canonical Deadly Desert section, the short story "Scarecrow" is a traditional Oz story that fits on the Timeline.






Dreaming in a Scarlet Slumber

Snopsis: Forthcoming


Continuity Notes This short story, which takes place while Dorothy is asleep in the poppy field (during chapter VIII of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz), is a prologue and foreshadow of events to come in Jeff Rester's forthcoming Death Comes to Oz. It is the first time Dorothy is shown to have occasional prophetic dreams. Her next one comes in "There's No Place Like Oz" (Oziana 1989)








The Scarecrow and Tin-Man of Oz

Chapter I: Dorothy’s Christmas Tree


History: This is the first episode of W.W. Denslow’s Scarecrow and Tinman newspaper strip, drawn for the McClure Syndicate. Denslow was the illustrator of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.


Synopsis: Forthcoming


Continuity Notes

Dating: This strip first appeared in the Minneapolis Journal on 12/10/1904. All evidence points to this story taking place during The Wonderful Wizard of Oz while the characters are in the Emerald City (the story mentions them at the Emerald Palace) for the second time (after having defeated the Wicked Witch), in which three days pass before the Wizard grants Dorothy her wish (as described in chapter XVI,) and is the only period in which this story can take place. This gives readers a start and end date for The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, which takes place over the course of 52 days. If December 24th falls on the 43d day of Dorothy's time in Oz, then the tornado struck Kansas and sent Dorothy to Oz on November 12th.


Chapters 2-12

Synopsis: Forthcoming






The Wizard of Aurissau

Available To Read Here

Synopsis: Forthcoming


Continuity Notes

Aurissau: This country first appeared in the Baum short story, "The Witchcraft of Mary Marie," which was compiled in Baum's American Fairy Tales. The Martin & Haff map places Mount Mern (from Handy Mandy in Oz) there on the Nonestican continent.


Dating: Story takes place shortly after the Wizard leaves Oz via balloon in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Another dating indication places The Magical Monarch of Mo prior to these events.


Jackdaws' Nest: This story places the location of the jackdaws' nest, as discovered in The Marvelous Land of Oz, in Aurissau. The very similar incident in the Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz newspaper strip (entitled "The Scarecrow Becomes a Man of Means in Spite of the Girls at a Church Fair") is likely apocryphal.






The Tin Castle of Oz

Synopsis: An account of the way in which the Tin Woodman's Tin Castle was constructed, and the adventure that ensued when the Tin Woodman pursued tin cloth from the cocoons of the tintipillars. Along the way, Nick Chopper and the Scarecrow meet Mortimer Mix, a being created by Boq the Munchkin and brought to life by the Good Witch of the North to help keep the Yellow Brick Roads in good repair. With the help of Timorous and some giant-sized mosquitoes (mentioned in The Emerald City of Oz), the Tin Woodman gets a new home in the Winkie country.


Continuity Notes

Dating: The frame story in the prologue and epilogue occur some years later. The flashback portions, which encompasses everything else, begins roughly twelve days after the events of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, around January 14th, 1900.


Road of Yellow Brick: It's here revealed that the Wicked Witch created the first Yellow Brick Road in an attempt to conquer the Wizard, a fact confirmed by How the Wizard Came to Oz and The Magic Umbrella of Oz. Mortimer Mix, a being created by Boq the Munchkin and brought to life by the Good Witch of the North, keeps the Yellow Brick Roads in good repair. The clock-faced Watchman, of Ozallooning in Oz, who oversees repairs seems to be "related" to him.


Wicked Witch's Castle: Though not revealed here, the Tin Woodman must have utilized the castle of the Wicked Witch of the West for a brief period (10 or so days), as Billina says in The Road to Oz that his "old castle was damp."






The Pearl and the Pumpkin

Continuity Notes

Continuity: This Denslow title—his follow-up to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz—was brought into Oz continuity by Hugh Pendexter III in his book Wooglet in Oz, which serves as a sequel of sorts to this book, and features several characters from it. The Pearl and the Pumpkin also features the Ancient Mariner as a character from the Samuel Taylor Coleridge poem The Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner, which brings that story into the larger saga, as well.


Dating: The narrative dates the events of The Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner to shortly over a hundred years prior, just before Coleridge penned the poem.







The Magic Chest of Oz

Synopsis: Two Munchkins accidentally release the living shadow of the Wicked Witch of the East (inadvertently created by the original), who with the help of the Hammerheads and their King Bluego, take over the Emerald City. With the help of the Good Witch of the North, the Scarecrow, Lion and Tin Woodman seek out the Magic Chest. Created by the Silver Shoes, it is the only thing that can contain the shadow of the witch. The Imp Etuous is first introduced here and later appears in The Amber Flute of Oz.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Story takes place on Dec 26, 1900, a week prior to the first celebration of Dorothy Day. This is established as a year to the day Dorothy left Oz (Jan 2nd, 1899).







The Speckled Rose of Oz

Synopsis: When Poison Oak, a sapient tree from the Sulpher Swamp of the Wild Winkie Wilderness wishes to turn Oz into a swamp by magically destroying all its flowers, the Ozian heroes go on an adventure to save Oz.


During their travels they meet the daughter of the Man in the Moon, Lady Minerva Moonstruck, whose trying to her husband who left the moon after finding a talisman that gives him the power of shape-shifting.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Takes place on March 21st (the first day of spring in 1901) in the final year of the Scarecrow's reign. Together, the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman and Lion had celebrated the annual Flower Festival in the Emerald City the year before.


Family ties: The narrative underscores the idea that the West and East witches were, in fact, sisters, but also that they had a brother, Sir Wiley Gyle.


Great Book of Records: This is chronologically the first appearance of the Glinda's Great Book of Records. It must have unlocked shortly before the events of this story. See the book's entry in "The Solitary Sorceress of Oz" in Oziana 2011.


Old Oz: Glinda reveals that Oz was gray prior to Lurline's enchantment. This has to be an indication of Enilrul's curse, as noted in The Witch Queen of Oz. She instructed her fairies to import flowers from around the world to Oz.







Father Goose in Oz

Synopsis: Living somewhere in the Nonestic (or an adjacent ocean, e.g., the Nonentic or Rolantic), Father Goose's goose Bilkins, obsessed with The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (just released on May 17, 1900), uses a magic pen to whisk them to the Land of Oz. There, they meet Dr. Pipt (the first chronological appearance of him), who introduces himself as Oswaldo Pipt.


The pair come across kalidahs roaming near Boq's house in the land of Munchkins. The kalidah king is called King Grumble.


They soon rescue the King of the Winged Monkeys, King Nikkalo (who must be the king at the time of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz).


Continuity Notes

Royal lineage: King Nikkalo notes that his father was king before him, which means there is a line of succession amongst the kings of the winged monkeys. Oziana 2010's "Fiddle's Revenge" (1899) refers to the King of the Winged Monkeys as King Tofu, which would have been Nikkalo's predecessor and father, indicating that Nikkalo succeeded him.


The Wicked Witch of the West: For the first time, the Wicked Witch of the West is magically resurrected by the power of the magic pen, and teams up with the Kalidah king to retrieve the pen and take over Oz.





Frankenstein's Monster Goes to Oz

Synopsis: A tornado in the North Pole sends Frankenstein's monsters to Oz, where he asks the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman, Cowardly Lion, and Glinda if he can settle there. For various reasons, they all deny him and send him to one of their friends until Glinda uses the Silver Shoes to send him back to the North Pole and Santa's workshop.


Continuity notes

Dating: This story takes place while the Scarecrow is yet ruling Oz, in 1900. That Frankenstein's creature is alive at this time is due to a magician having restored him to life ("Halloween Island") prior to the events of this story.


Frankenstein: This story, as with "Halloween Island," brings Mary Shelley's Frankenstein into Oz continuity, and provides a happier ending for the creature, whose restored to life by an unnamed magician and finds his way to Oz, Santa's workshop in the North Pole, and, finally, Halloween Island.


Silver Shoes: This is a tricky bit of continuity, as it strongly implies that Glinda had initially retrieved the Shoes from the Deadly Desert, where Dorothy had lost them on her way back to Kansas, but then used them for a similar purpose for Frankenstein's monster, where they ended up lost on the Deadly Desert again. One could argue, however, that Glinda was testing to see if, in fact, the Shoes would get lost again, or if that was a fluke when it first happened. This experiment proved it wasn't, though it meant losing the shoes, which she otherwise would have retrieved from Santa.





The Amber Flute of Oz

Synopsis: Five hundred years after his creation by Ozgood the Magnificent to protect Oz from outside evils, the Sand Serpent is restored to life by Blinkie, the former Wicked Witch of the South, to avenge herself upon Glinda who had taken away her knowledge of witchcraft. Driven from the Quadling Country, Glinda urges the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman and Lion to team up with the rascally magician Ozwaldo, who they'd just defeated after his attempts to take over the Munchkin country, because he alone knows where his ancestor Ozgood hid the amber flute, the only thing that can put the Sand Serpent back to sleep.


Continuity Notes

Ebony: Blinkie's cat Ebony is called a Copycat, and displays powers similar to that of a Mimic (from The Magical Mimics in Oz), however, this is later discovered to be because of the power of a red ribbon which the cat wears. What becomes of the magic ribbon is unknown, though it's possible Glinda has it.


Sand Serpent: It appears that the Sand Serpent lives on in the Deadly Desert, as Santa Claus reports being attacked and hunted by a dragon that lived in the desert, but could not pass its borders (Santa Claus in Oz).







Buffalo Dreams

Synopsis: On September 14th, leaving the Omaha State Fair on his way to North Platte, Nebraska, to join up with Colonel Cody and the Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, Oscar Diggs gets off the train in Broke Plaw in order to make money. There, he joins a small-time conman named Erikson, who runs the "Ghost of a Sitting Bill" attraction built around a purportedly talking buffalo. On the second day, Oscar discovers that the bull, who's been mistreated and starved by Erikson, really does talk. Oscar discovers that the buffalo is not the the spirit of Sitting Bull, but a former man named Jackson Priest, who when he got stuck in a blizzard, killed a buffalo and stayed warm inside its bowels. But when he woke up, after having a dream in which Sitting Bull spoke to him of killing the last of the buffalo, he was the buffalo. He was shortly afterwards captured by Erikson. He asks Oscar to help him.


The next day, Oscar gets the audience to feed the buffalo apples. The buffalo, Priest, is grateful and tells Oscar to feed him for two more days when he'll be strong enough to break out.


The next day, however, Oscar is only able to get him a few pears, and doesn't make as much, and when Erickson shakes him down for what little he has, he's kicked out of town. But that night, after having a dream, Oscar sneaks back to Priest's tent. He attempts to knock out the guard, but the man screams, so Oscar grabs his gun and blasts open the door barring the buffalo. Jumping on the buffalo's back, Oscar and Priest dash away and hide in the Nebraska prairie. The pair travel together to North Platte, hoping to join the Wild West Show.


A month later, on October 21st, the pair are working for Colonel Cody, who signed them up as soon as he saw them audition. Now well-fed and free to move about, Priest becomes a popular attraction with the kids. Omaha Jackson and his Trained Buffalo tour for two seasons in New York, Missouri, Philadelphia and Canada.  When they go to Omaha in August, two years after they met, Oscar is invited by his former employer George to go up in his old balloon again, but a Nebraska storm blows him away.


Continuity Notes

Dating: For this story to fit, the internal dates have to be seen as off by three years in each instance. The text dates the story as beginning in September 14, 1896, and ending two years later in August 1898. Those dates are impossible to reconcile because Oscar is still ruling from the Emerald City in Oz at this time (he first arrived in Oz 1871 and left in 1899: see the notes for How the Wizard Came to Oz). While the author's intent was that this take place before the Wizard first goes to Oz, that would place this story in 1870, far too early for these events to have occurred (e.g., you can't have a "ghost" of Sitting Bull if he's alive and well). "Buffalo Dreams" functions well, however, as a depiction of Oscar's years after he returned to the Outside World at the end of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, in September 1899, when he resumed the career he had prior to coming to Oz, and before his second and final trip to Oz in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz in August of 1902. Because this story is written in the first person, it must be assumed that when Oscar wrote this story (or told it) that he had his dates wrong, or may not have known how much time had actually passed while he'd been living in Oz.


This, of course, makes the story's dates off by three years, but it affords it a place on the timeline that is plausible within the historical events listed, e.g., the death of Sitting Bull (who died in 1890), and the tour of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, which concluded in Omaha in 1902 before leaving for Europe. Oscar's balloon trip at the end of this story, however, isn't the one that brings him to the Land of the Mangaboos in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, as he mentions in the latter story as having been working for Barnum & Bailey. Rather, the finale of Buffalo Dreams leads him away from Buffalo Bill's show to Barnum & Bailey's Circus in Los Angeles, where he works for several months. His involvement in "The Adventure of the Sinister Chinaman" places him in San Francisco before the end of this story.


Oscar's Age: Oscar is noted as being 40 years old in this year (established to be 1899: see Dating above for this calculation). This age is off as he was 40 when he first came to Oz in 1871. He may not know his actual age at this point since the rulers of Oz prior to him did not age (or age at the same rate), and his own aging was considerably slowed while living in Oz. For more information on this, see the continuity notes for "The Adventure of the Sinister Chinaman."






The Adventure of the Sinister Chinaman

Synopsis: When an Asian magician is framed for kidnapping a young girl during his act, Sherlock Holmes, John Watson and Oscar Diggs work to uncover the truth and save the man from prison and lynching.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Author Barbara Hambly provides an exact date of June 7, 1901, a date that corresponds to the time Oscar Diggs was living and working in California after having left Oz in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. The text [p. 128, 138 and 144] incorrectly notes that he vanished in a ballooning accident in 1861 and lived in Fairyland for 40 years. This is off by ten years, as he first arrived in Oz in 1871 (see the notes for How the Wizard Came to Oz) and remained there for close to 30 years. It's a minor discrepancy that can be chalked up to historian error (either Watson's or Hambly's). The text also says he vanished again the following years, in 1902. This is correct and in accordance with the dating of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz.  


Oscar's Age and Aging in Oz: There are some questions concerning the age of Oscar Diggs, the Wizard of Oz. In this story, Watson states that he discovered that he was 63 when he first left Omaha for Oz, and that he is that same age in 1901. This is noteworthy, as it implies that the Wizard either didn't age in Oz, or aged much slower. Watson (or Hambly) are incorrect about the 1861 date in which Oscar came to Oz, off by ten years (since ballooning did not start until 1871: see the continuity notes for How the Wizard Came to Oz), and it can be argued that his age is also off by the same amount and that the text should read 53 instead of 63. But there may be something else going on. An additional monkey-wrench is thrown in by "Buffalo Dreams," which says he's 40 in 1899. In Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, Oscar states [p. 195-6] that "Over this Land I ruled in peace for many years, until I grew old and longed to see my native city once again." That indicates that he aged in Oz. In Paradox in Oz, he says "When I first came to Oz, I was a young man. People in those days aged, just like they did in Kansas." He's right as to the latter point, but as to the former, he doesn't account for those, such as the rulers in Oz, who did not age (or age at the same rate as others). More on this below.


Although the text in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz calls him a "little old man" [45, 217], and Ozma invites him to stay, saying he's "too old to wander abroad and work in a circus." [197], in "Buffalo Dreams," Oscar notes that at 40 he's already "too old" to compete with the younger carnies who can be paid half as much, so Ozma's assertion can be understood in that context. He is too old to wander the outside world and for the circus life. Baum's suggestion that he's a little old man should also be understood in the context of his readers and Dorothy, both of whom are quite young and for whom anyone out of their teens would be considered "old." Also consider that in that era the term "old man" was used as a male term of address for men in general.
On page 196, it's notable that Oscar discovers when returning home that "all of my old friends were dead or had moved away." They had died because 30 years had passed. He does join the circus again, which is not something an old man could readily do as he noted in "Buffalo Dreams," and yet he does. This indicates, as well, that he didn't return to the age he would have been in the outside world. Also, he didn't suddenly turn 80 years old. More on this below.


The question is how could he have stayed young in a time before Ozma came to the throne and death was eradicated. In the Tin Woodman of Oz, Baum indicates that from the moment Lurline enchanted Oz, no one ever aged or died. This is problematic in that several are reported as having died since. Putting that aside for the time, there's one thing that is clear. The kings and queens of Oz did not die. Ozma's step-father Pastoria II, her step-mother Cordia, her grandfather Pastoria I, her great-grandfather Ozroar (Ozandahan the Roarer) all lived for centuries on end. This must be because the Enilrul and Lurline's enchantment of deathlessness (The Witch Queen of Oz) affected only certain areas throughout Oz, such as the center and the western quadrant, as evidenced by the long-lived lives of the Corabians, Corumbians and Samandrans, as well as the fact that Nick Chopper and Captain Fyter didn't die when they lost crucial limbs (such as their heads). Some time after Oscar Diggs first came to Oz, he took over Morrow (aka. Ozmara), where Pastoria and Cordia had ruled. He then built the Emerald City even nearer to the center of Oz, thus, at an enchanted location, where he stopped aging altogether.


To reconcile all these events, and with some creative retconning, it appears that Oscar came to Oz at the age of 40, giving him a birth year of 1831. He grew older, as he stated, but at a much slower rate than everyone else in other parts of Oz, about half the rate of normal aging, 10.5 years for the 21 years he lived in the old palace in Ozmara until 1892 when he moved into the Royal Palace in the newly built Emerald City. This makes his age 51 or 52. While applying for his new circus job, he listed his age to account for his appearance, not the age he would have been if he'd never gone to Oz.


Accounting for authorial error (since Oscar came to Oz in 1871, not 1861, and thus a 10 year error), Watson discovers a document that claims Oscar's birth year is 1818, and that he be 83 in 1901. Thus, Watson concludes that the man he and Holmes met must be an impersonator of the real Oscar Diggs, since the man who claims to be him is clearly not that old! Whatever document Watson discovered is clearly in error since Oscar was born in 1831, not 1818. Recall that Oscar himself said he was a "young man" when he first came to Oz, and 53 is well outside of that definition (technically, 40 would be too, but keep in mind that Oscar knows he's actually in his 70s, which makes age 40 seem quite young). This is a 13 year age discrepancy, as well as a 13 year date discrepancy. Coincidence? Not likely. What may have happened was that when he came back to Omaha in 1899, he hired someone to falsify his birth year by 13 years. This would be necessary to keep anyone from suspecting his actual age. Apparently, whoever he paid to do this who didn't know math very well, as he should have pushed the year forward from 1831 to 1844, so that Oscar appears to be around the age he looks. Instead, the con-artist went 13 years in the wrong direction, backwards, and changed the birth year to 1818. Thus, the record that Watson found makes Oscar appear to be an impersonator.


But how did Oscar not return to the age he would've been back in America, since this is what happens to any mortal who leaves Oz without an enchantment upon them, as shown in The Lost King of Oz and Beach Blanket BabylOz? The simple answer is Glinda enchanted him before he left Oz. In the new version of How the Wizard Came to Oz, it's shown that Glinda actually helped him against the Wicked Witches. She also plays a crucial role alongside the Wizard just prior to Dorothy's arrival (this is also shown in the forthcoming "The Puppet Mistress of Oz.") In fact, the latter incident likely included a gift to the Wizard, an enchantment to keep him young in the outside world.


Sherlock Holmes and Watson: This is not the first story to be written to crossover Sherlock Holmes and the Oz series, but it is the first to occur chronologically, and it explains how the Wizard and Holmes know each other. This indicates that later when they discovered Oz was real, Watson came to realize that the Oscar he first met was in fact the very same man as the one who vanished in a balloon in 1871, and that he wasn't delusional. The later stories include "Sherlock Holmes in Oz," in Oziana 1971, "The Mystery of the Missing Ozma," in Oziana 1984, and "The Adventure of the Cat That Did Not Meow," in Oziana 1976.


Wicked Witch of the East: Oscar notes a previously untold battle he fought with the Wicked Witch of the East (or an untold incident during a known battle). On page 136, he says: "Why, when I went into battle against the Wicked Witch of the East and her evil minions, she called darkness a thousand times more dreadful than this, just by pouring ink onto her mirror--" This must have occurred in between the battles he fought with the witches in How the Wizard Came to Oz and Oz and the Three Witches.








The Marvelous Land of Oz

The 2nd book of the Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!


Synopsis: When the witch Mombi decides her charge, a young boy named Tip must be changed into a statue, Tip runs away from home with Jack Pumpkinhead, who he's just brought to life with a magical potion called the Powder of Life, and the Sawhorse, who he also brings to life. On their journey, they meet with the Wogglebug, a former normal-sized bug who was magnified on a screen by Professor Nowitall, at which time he becomes human sized, and goes off.  The Scarecrow and Tin Woodman also meet up with Tip and his friends, but they have problems of their own.


A disgruntled female citizen of Oz, General Jinjur has decided to rule Oz, and has brought her army of girls, called the Army of Revolt, to take over the Emerald City. The Queen of the Field Mice intervenes on behalf of her old friends, but Jinjur still holds the palace.


Together, the friends create the Gump out of the head of a moose, two sofas, the tail from a broom, and palm fronds for wings. With the Powder of Life, he's brought to life, and flies them away from the Emerald City. They crash in a jackdaws' nest, where the Scarecrow loses all his hay to the jackdaws, but stuffs himself with all the cash they find in the nest. There, they also find magic wishing pills, which they use to help them get to Glinda the Good in the south. Glinda informs them that the legitimate ruler of Oz is a girl named Ozma, who was hidden away by the Wizard.


Mombi, meanwhile, has teamed up with General Jinjur, as the most expedient way of getting Tip back. Yet, when Glinda's forces arrive, they depose her, and Mombi transforms herself into a rose, which the Tin Woodman puts on his lapel. Glinda discovers Mombi's trick, but Mombi transforms herself into a black ant, and then into a large Griffin, which runs across the Deadly Desert (apparently the Griffin can withstand the desert's destructive qualities). Glinda catches her aboard the Sawhorse (who the Deadly Desert also apparently has no affect on).


Mombi is forced to reveal the truth about Ozma. The Wizard gave her to him as a baby. She transformed him into the boy Tip. With Ozma revealed and reluctantly disenchanted from the form of Tip, Oz once again has its rightful ruler. The Wogglebug is made public educator, the Gump is taken apart, with the head placed back on the wall, and Mombi is stripped of magic (though Tip promised to provide for her in her old age). General Jinjur is arrested, but allowed to leave the Emerald City with her army.


Continuity Notes

Dating: The events take place over the course of 13 days (see The Chronology of Oz) in mid-to-late October 1901. The month is determined by the fact that Tip has just completed harvesting the corn, and is selecting ripe pumpkins, one of which he uses to make Jack Pumpkinhead. Although recognized as the rightful ruler of Oz, and serving as Princess-Elect (or more accurately as Princess Designate), due to the standard interregnum period, Ozma is not anointed ruler until six months later in July 1902 (the month is designated by Dick Martin in the 1965 Ozmapolitan, the month and year in the 1904 Ozmapolitan). Ozma's disenchantment at the end of this book is established as being the first period in the 1904 Ozmapolitan, although the first official year of Ozma's reign begins after her coronation in July of the following year. For a more detailed chronology of this book alongside the other early Oz books, see the Appendices: Dating the Early Oz Books which details the establishment of 1902 as the correct date.   


Déja Vu: Baum reuses the jackdaw's nest scenario in the seventh Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz strip, which is so close to the original as to be potentially apocryphal without a further explanation.


Four-horned Cow: The history of this cow is told in Oziana 1985 story "Mombi's Pink Polkadot Vest."


Golden Cap: The magic cap that controls the Winged Monkeys is noted by the Scarecrow to have been given to Glinda for safekeeping. After she used it, however, she gave it to the King of the Winged Monkeys, as noted in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. He later gave it back to her for safe keeping (Adolf Hitler in Oz).


Gump:  The Gump returns again for the Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz strips, then again in The Blue Emperor of Oz, and in his own book, The Astonishing Tale of the Gump of Oz, where he searches out what became of the sofas, broom and palm fronds brought to life by the Powder of Life.


Jinjur: Jinjur marries and retires to write her notes in "Jinjur's Journal." She doesn't stay married long, as noted in "Four Views of General Jinjur," yet she appears to reconcile with her husband later on.


Mombi: Mombi appears across the spectrum of Oz stories, as her actions as the Wicked Witch of the North, as well as her own purposes apart from the designs of the Compass Witches, were manifold. She is responsible for abducting and transforming the entire Royal Family. Mombi is powerful, yet complex, and not entirely evil. She performs her famous Switcheroo Spell here on Jellia Jamb, who she switches with herself (this is a novel employment of this spell, as she's never switched herself before), the same spell she used on Ozma and Tip (The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1) and so many others. Mombi is shown to be executed in The Lost King of Oz, however, this later proves to have been a ruse in "Executive Decisions" and "Thy Fearful Symmetry" from Oziana #38. Mombi's own journal is due to be published in the future, though a segment of it is available in Oziana 2015's "The Malevolent Mannequin in Oz." Mombi's childhood and back-story, along with her true nature as a Yookoohoo, will be published in the upcoming story, The Gillikin Witches of Oz.


Ozma/Tip: The full story of Ozma/Tip's enchantment is revealed piecemeal, first in a distorted version of Dr. Nikidik's, provided in The Master Crafters of Oz. The actual event that occurred is revealed in The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Books 1 and 2. Jack Snow's A Murder in Oz would seem to contradict this, but Jeff Rester's upcoming Death Comes to Oz reconciles the accounts.


Professor Nowitall: Prior to Jinjur's Army of Revolt attacking the Emerald City, Mombi had demanded that Professor Nowitall give her his magnifying screen, which had enlarged the Wogglebug, so that she could enlarge Jinjur's army and take the palace. When he refused and destroyed it, she transformed him into a creature with the head of a tiger and body of a large serpent, casting him in the Gillikin River with a spell that only she could undo. There, as the creature Magenta, he forgot who he was. Mombi also transported his wife Ima into a ring. 80 years later, Magenta returns in Bucketheads in Oz. In Eureka in Oz, Professor Nowitall's son, Professor Nowitall (Jr.), who had been the one teaching class when his father's magnifying screen magnified the Wogglebug, is approached by Eureka in his quiet abode, where he teaches her proper Oz manners. Professor Nowitall Sr.'s first name is revealed here to be Donti.


Roads: As Glinda's army passes from her castle in the Quadling Country to the Emerald City seemingly without problem, there appears to be a new roadway in place past the Hammerheads. This is acknowledged as having taken place in The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz. J.L. Bell, on the BCF Pumperdink forum (for Lucky Bucky in Oz), points out that: "Once Glinda had formed an alliance with the Scarecrow, she may have felt safe enough to clear the way for a better road between her castle and the Emerald City. When the city's ruler was a wizard she didn't trust, and other wicked rulers lived north of her castle as well, she may not have wanted there to be an easy route to her home."


Wogglebug's Physiognomy: There is a discrepancy of the Wogglebug having two arms (as drawn by Neill here) as opposed to four (as drawn by Walt McDougall and Ike Morgan, and described by Baum in Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz and The Wogglebug Book). "The Woggle-bug's New Clothes," Oziana 1987, indicates that the Wogglebug started out with four arms. "The Eldritch Horror of Oz," Oziana 1981, indicates that he'd cut them off so as to appear less insectoid.


Dr. Nikidik and Dr. Pipt: For detailed information on the initial discrepancy and retcon of the two crooked magicians, see the Appendices.






To Do One's Duty

Available to Read Here


Author's Note: The title comes from a quote by Ozma herself: " is always wise to do one's duty, however unpleasant that duty may seem to be."


Synopsis: Longing for her old life as Tip, Ozma feels the weight of so much resting on her shoulders. At a feast to celebrate her month as princess, she breaks down in tears. Embarrassed by her display, as well as by the love shown her, she takes the Sawhorse to Glinda to get help. Feeling she is not worthy of being Princess of Oz, she asks Glinda to choose another, but Glinda reassures her that she is both compassionate and meant to rule Oz, and need not worry about being perfect. At last, Ozma accepts the role she's meant to play.


Continuity Notes

Dating: This story takes place a month after the end of The Marvelous Land of Oz, which sees her coronation as Princess of Oz (she won't be inaugurated Queen until July of the following year).


Ozma: As with the short story, "Ozma Sees Herself," (Oz-Story Magazine #3), this deals with the psychological ramifications of Ozma's change from boy to girl, but also from poor to rich, and idle to responsible.






The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1: The Disenchanted Princess of Oz

History: Putting into context some of the dangling plot threads and mysteries from the canonical Oz series, alongside a new narrative focusing on the adventures of Tippetarius and the Flying Sorcerer Zim Greenleaf, this book and its two successors that make up The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz trilogy are considered deuterocanonical by The Royal Timeline of Oz.


Synopsis: Young Princess Amalea of Lostland finds herself transformed into a boy. He gets a sudden beating from Maroc, the head gardener, who thinks he's a thief and takes him to the dungeon. Seeing his pointed Elfin ears, the lockups Marjon and Miggs ask him if he's a fairy, but he doesn't know. Disturbed and worried, he asks to see his family's loyal servant Faraq, who he knows will help him. But concerned that the fairy boy will bring the wrath of the fairies upon them, particularly if King Whippetarius has him executed (the penalty for stealing from the garden), one of the lockups gives him a knapsack and lamp and leads him to the deepest part of the dungeon where there is a trapdoor and an old sign that reads: "To the Land of Oz."


Although Lostland is in the Munchkin Country, it is cut off from the surrounding realms by a bottomless gulf and steep mountains. There is a single pass through the mountains, which few known even exist. It is, according to legend how the first Lostlanders entered the region from the northeast Munchkin country, fleeing from the rapacious Rimmers. Having heard good things of the magical realm, the former princess decides he will look upon this as an adventure and find a way to get disenchanted. He follows the tunnel, which branches right and left. The right one ends at a hole just above the bottomless gulf. Retreating, he takes the left, which after some miles leads to a door with a bell. There, he meets an innkeeper named Igvan and her husband Blik who insists that all who escape from Lostland have to work to eat. He introduces himself as Amadin, and finds that he's handier with an axe than he thought he would be (having never before worked). Igvin tells Amadin that he's in the Seven Blue Mountains of Oz and that there are several good wizards and witches in the region, such as Ganalan, Brown Bleegum, Maggie, Vega and the Green Knight. Looking at his new face in the mirror, he's struck by his resemblance to his mother.


Determined to find one of the good magic-workers, he leaves the inn the next day and walks towards the Seven Blue Mountains until he finds a farmhouse where he offers work for food. He meets the farmhands Om, Strom and Grom, who nickname him Dinny. He works with them for two months until heading off to find the good witch Maggie who he discovers lives in a cottage nearby. After explaining his situation to her, Maggie checks in her magic mirror to confirm his story, and reveals to him that this is indeed his true form. Dinny is distraught, but Maggie concedes to change his pointed ears into standard human ones.


Later at a village fair, he sees the good wizard Vega perform, but he vanishes before he can meet him and Dinny decides it's time to move on. Traveling around the base of Mount Lapis Lazuli, he finds a tunnel leading to a blue cave filled with bats trying to sleep. One of the bats tells him that some of the passages lead to a city and Dinny proceeds through. But he soon gets lost as the tunnels fork and split, and then his lamp goes out. After many miles of stumbling and groping and starving, Dinny at last finds a passageway leading up and up, narrowing until it ends at a stone that Dinny pushes away to reveal the light.


He emerges at the slope of the blue mountain in a carefully tended orchard in which each bush and tree has a plaque with the name of the tree in Latin. Hungrily, he eats some berries, but they cause him to shrink. Shocked by this sudden turn of events, and concerned that birds might eat him, he carries a dead leaf over his head as he searches for food and a place to sleep.


The next day, Dinny meets some butterflies who tell him about the man who tends the garden. Fashioning swords out of thorns, Dinny searches and finds an ordinary garden where he helps himself to a strawberry. Before nightfall he locates a magic orchard and greenhouse. The next day he meets a young toad and tells him that he didn't hatch, but was born 28 years ago. The toad's mother tells him he's in the garden of a sorcerer. Dinny befriends her children.


The next day he finally gets a glimpse of the sorcerer, a slender and tall man with upswept green hair. As Dinny decides how to approach him, a preying mantis takes an interest in him. Dinny runs to Zim's house, and leaves a message for him in twigs: HELP. He waits atop a rock, but an approaching snake convinces him to climb a nearby plant instead. Zim sees the messages, but walks inside just as the snake finds Dinny. Zim returns in time to save Dinny and scold the snake. He confirms Amadin's story in his magic mirror, and informs Dinny that he can undo the effects of the berry micromorphosa pessim, named after the man who discovered them on Pessim's Island (The Scarecrow of Oz), and who also discovered macromorphosa pessim, which Zim uses to make Dinny large again.


Confirming in his mirror that the boy is faithful and true, and that Dinny truly has no place to go, Zim offers him a position working in his arboretum and going to market for him. He places two conditions on him: that he never reveal Zim or the location of his garden-home, and that if he wishes to leave his service he must consent to letting him blot out his memory. Dinny gladly agrees and comes learns much about this strange, but kindhearted sorcerer, who he discovers the next day maintains several tricks for keeping the Seven Blue Mountains safe from evil. For his part, Dinny proves to be a good assistant and helper, and Zim reveals to him his many forms, including that of Brown Bleegum, a bearded dwarf-wizard; Ganalan, a free-spirited young wizard; Rooster, a strong-man fruits and vegetable dealer; Vega, a melancholy minstrel; the red-headed Green Knight, and Winkle a crusty seaman. In each of these forms, Dinny is also given an alter-ego and new shape to wear so as to protect Zim from being discovered. They travel through a magic portal to the various locations where each of these wizards do business.


In their adventures, they help disenchant princess Gladia from an elephant back to her normal self; they help the Withy Girls who've declared independence from men, and rescue Prince Jamine Saxon from the witch Eereesa who turned him into a strawberry that his sister accidentally ate. Along the way, Dinny discovers that Zim has one major phobia, a terrifying fear of giants.


One day, Zim (as Brown Bleegum) brings Dinny to his home country of Lostland, where he reveals to his mother, Queen Jolanna, that he is her son/daughter Amalea. Jolanna explains that after Tippetarius was born, she and her loyal servant Faraq sought out a witch to transform the baby boy into a girl. The Queen feared that her husband, King Whippetarius, who had nine sons already, would make good on his threat to murder her and the baby if she produced another son. While Bleegum is there, it becomes known that Faraq had recently fallen into a glassworks and reemerged as a glass man. To punish him for some perceived slight, King Whip forced him to travel each day up a narrow flight of stairs, until at last he slipped and shattered. Faraq's mother gathered up the pieces, hoping against hope that some magic worker could one day repair him. She now gives those shards to Brown Bleegum, who takes them with him.


Over six months of piecing Faraq together, at last Zim is able to return him to life. Not only that, but he restores him to his human self. Faraq and his mother are overjoyed when they return. And to ensure that the king behaves, Bleegum enchants him so that if he delivers any unjust punishment, it will instead fall upon him instead of his victim. In order to spend time with his mother again, Dinny is transformed into the form of a different boy who Faraq claims as an apprentice. Yet, doing so puts him under the heels of his brothers, who take pleasure in tormenting him. After he gets some small revenge on them, the king has him put in the dungeon, where he once again goes through the tunnel into Oz and back to the home of Brown Bleegum, where Dinny again resumes his form and apprenticeship to Zim.


30th year of Ozma's reign: Dinny and Zim travel to the Green Mountain to the dwarf kingdom of Carrock. Disguised as Brown Bleegum, Zim asks the king's brother, the Regent Keern, where King Velas is. Keern tells him that he's been missing for three centuries along with the Wishing Necklaces that King Velas's best friend the Wizard Wam (Wammerian Hadrakis) made for him to give to his bride-to-be, the Wood Nymph Lorna (The Wishing Horse of Oz). Neither King Velas, Lorna or the Wishing Necklaces were ever seen again.


Bleegum agrees to help find the king. He confides to Dinny that the good witch Maggie told him that King Velas was enchanted. They discuss theories, including one that implicates Lorna. But no one but Velas knows where her grove is and the homes of Wood Nymph are difficult to find. Bleegum's compass, however, is able to lead them to King Velas. But their guard and escort Glundquist insists on accompanying them as they follow the compass to the king's room, where they are forbidden to enter. Glundquist leaves and returns with Lindquan who tells them that he saw Regent Keern addressing someone in that room named Velas. So, with a spell of invisibility, the four enter the king's room. The compass then points to a pond. Dinny enters and finds King Velas in the form of a bullfrog. The frog explains that indeed Lorna transformed him into that form when she first got the Wishing Necklaces 300 years ago, and his brother took advantage of it to rule in his stead. Bleegum transforms him back into his true form. Garbing himself in kingly raiment, King Velas returns to his throne room and summons his brother, banishing him from the realm for 300 years.


The next day after the celebration, King Velas leads Bleegum and Dinny to the woodland dwelling of Lorna the Wood Nymph. When she appears, Bleegum tosses a powder into her face that transforms her into a frog. Lorna explains that the Wishing Necklaces are long gone, but Bleegum reproves her for what she did to Velas and says she will remain in this new form until she changes her treacherous nature.


32nd year of Ozma's reign: Bleegum drops Dinny off at Maggie's while he goes to see what harm the evil witch Wunchie has been causing. But Wunchie spots Dinny first and strikes her Magic Hammer, summing Himself the Elf to take Dinny to the worst place under the earth. Maggie hears Dinny's cries and tries to stop the Elf, but only manages to snatch some of his beard. Before he disappears under the earth, Dinny manages to tell Maggie what Wunchie said. Maggie pursues her, but she flees back to her home in the Munchkin Mountain.  When she sees Bleegum, Maggie informs him what happened. He in turn informs her that Wunchie's been busy. She turned the Trirulers into stone, imprisoned the Eggazons in a bubble, sent black bees to Luckskee, and put a spell of sneezing upon the Askerins. Wunchie has furthered threatened that if Bleegum and Maggie don't stop interfering in her business, she'll do much more!


Bleegum knows the Hammer Elf is Wunchie's main source of power, but he can't stop him without a personal item of his. Maggie then remembers the beard she cut off him. So, the pair recite the spell that prevents Himself the Elf from entering the Seven Blue Mountains. Wunchie, meanwhile, sends Himself off to kill King Hargree of Lonlee, but grows furious when she finds out the elf is unable to enter the region no matter what he tries. Zim proceeds to undo all of Wunchie's spells, and then goes in search of Dinny. The boy turns up in the Vegetable Kingdom of the Mangaboos, but when Zim next checks his records, he's gone.


Dinny, meanwhile, has tried to escape from the beautiful but emotionless Mangaboos, but to little avail. They capture him and cover him with the Cloak of Darkness to try and destroy him. The cloak had been the Wizard of Oz's from the time he ventured into this region (Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz). When it fails to kill Dinny, the boy escapes again. Thinking how he might stop their pursuit of him, he recites the spell that Zim had used to repair Faraq, and succeeds in repairing parts of their Glass City. This causes them to take pause, and the Prince deems him a wizard and decides to spare his life for the time. Dinny explains that he's merely a wizard's apprentice, but the prince says he may live long enough to repair their city, after which he can choose his choice of death: the black pit or the twining vines.


Two guards, who Dinny names Cherub and Flax, step up to ensure he harms no one and that no harm comes to him, particularly from the sorcerer Dwig. Dinny goes about making repairs and learning about their culture, and gives each of his guards a gift. The Mangaboos are shocked to know how long meat people live. The next day, at the Weeding Out, it's Dinny's turn to be shocked, as he sees how the Mangaboos revere beauty and condemn ugliness to the destruction of the Twining Vines. Only the beautiful are allowed to be planted for descendents, with the sole exception for those with a talent, like their sorcerers. Dinny also gets to see how young, growing Mangaboos are taught while they grow on their stalks at the Folk Gardens. Dinny asks to see the Black Pit, and later, when he comes before the Prince, the Prince offers him a third option: to drink of the potion prepared by their sorcerer and become one of them. Dinny refuses that option and asks instead to be taken to the Black Pit.


Once he is placed inside, with the entrance blocked up by stones, he uses magic to create a light for himself. He's surprised to find the body of a young Mangaboo who had been thrown in the Black Pit some time earlier. Suddenly, the Mangaboo boy speaks. Dinny's light revived him from near-death. He'd been considered mad and given the name Gilo. The Mangaboos threw him in the Pit when he refused to toss a friend into the Twining Vines, and unlike others of his kind, Gilo feels emotional pain and loss. Dinny explains what a heart is and says it seems like he has something like it. Gilo wants it removed, and Dinny agrees to take him to see Zim.


On their journey, Dinny comes to see how valuable the Mangaboos' suns are to them and how the Cloak and Black Pit mean death to them because they shield them from the sun. The tunnel leads them to the Valley of Voe, where an invisible girl offers them the dama fruit which renders them invisible, a necessary preventative to keep them safe from the invisible bears that stalk the region. Yet, as Gilo can't eat, the girl brings him to her home where her father Ianu puts him on the roof where he can get light and be kept safe from the bears. Ianu recalls the time the Wizard and his companions had come through there (in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz). He directs Dinny to a tunnel on Pyramid Mountain, where once lived the Wooden Gargoyles, which he believes are all extinct due to a fire or were later killed by the people of Voe when they entered their country. The family packs food for Dinny and sprays dama-fruit juice on Gilo so that he becomes invisible. Departing, Dinny and Gilo come to a stream, where they follow Ianu's instructions and rub a large-leafed plant on their feet, enabling them to walk on water and better avoid the bears.


Once at Pyramid Mountain they follow the tunnel which spirals up inside it. Dinny collects a windowpane with a seemingly magic glass for Zim. In a wide cavern they come across the charred remains of the former Gargoyle country. Dinny realizes that the Wizard must have lit the fire to escape and that the Wooden Gargoyles fanned its flames trying to put it out, spreading it and causing a greater conflagration. Departing from there they come into another large chamber filled with treasure of all kinds. They pocket a few diamonds, but as they exit through the dark curving tunnel they hear a roar and retreat back to the treasure room to hide. A few baby dragons come through followed by their mother. Waiting till they pass into their den, they depart for the cavern nearest the surface, but a large boulder blocks their path to the surface. Then they hear the dragon approaching. Just in time, Zim shows up and pushes the boulder aside. Zim addresses the dragon Hadasse, who insists on eating him, so Zim shrinks her down to a foot-long size and opts to keep her as a pet to light his pipe. Her dragonette children are reduced to manageable mouse-sized dragons, which despite her pleading and claims to have come from the Green Dragon of Atlantis, he puts inside a cage. Zim then speaks with Gilo and brings them back to the treasure room where the Mangaboo finds the Stone of Soames, which answers any one question per person once a century. Dinny asks about who enchanted and disenchanted him, and learns that it was Mombi. Zim asks it how to cure his gigantophobia, but it gives a cryptic answer about having to "meet its reverse."


Zim confirms to Gilo that he is not mad, but compassionate, and deserves to be planted with the one he loves. Dinny suggests taking him to Oz, but Zim reminds him that plants die in Oz, even sapient ones. Nor can he restore his humanity as he did with Faraq because he was never human. Dinny suggests planting him in his garden, but Zim is unsure what he'd do with his offspring if they don't wish to stay, and he's aware that the Mangaboos will only execute them if they prove to be like their father. Dinny recommends experimenting on the whole race to give them compassion and love, but Zim realizes that because they're so short-lived, they'll only spend their time in mourning. So Dinny suggests he give them longer life. Zim ponders this, but says he won't do anything to them without their consent. Dinny feels they may allow it for the opportunity to live longer.


The next day, Zim examines the windowpane Dinny got for him, and tells him that it's a tangible hole (though he doesn't know it, it was made by the Braided Man). Zim flies them to Boboland, where Dinny offers Prince Bobo the shrunken dragons, which he takes for pets, save for their mother. Bobo is glad to know the Dragon of the Peaks has at last been vanquished. Dinny also informs him of the treasure horde, which Bobo promises to restore to their rightful owners.


Zim and Dinny then fly to the Rose Kingdom (Tik-Tok of Oz). While they normally refuse strangers in their land, Zim knows that they will welcome anyone who comes in the name of Omiarr, the fairy man who is the ancestor of the sapient Rosebushes in that kingdom. He had been enchanted into a rosebush by an evil wizard who'd been angry with him for not helping him conquer Mo. As the wizard was later killed by a knight, Omiarr remained in that form for a century, giving forth seeds which became a vegetable man and woman. Omiarr was later found again by Lulea and returned to the Forest of Burzee, though his offspring continue to grow and live in the Rose Kingdom. Zim soon greets the Rose King Filamore, who is fresh off the bush and happy to see them, but his subjects threaten to kill them if they enter. The Gardener confirms that they cannot enter, but Zim proclaims that they come in the name of Omiarr. None have done so in a century and they then welcome them. They are fascinate by Gilo who is so like and yet unlike them, and are eager to learn more about him. While the Roses will not let Gilo be planted there, the king will allow Zim to take their pollen to plant with Gilo in his arboretum on the condition that if he's successful in giving the Mangaboos longer life he must in turn give it to them. Gilo consents to being planted and pollinated with the Roses, but wishes it could have been Oris he was planted with.


The next day Zim brings them to his conservatory and Gilo is amazed at the variety of plant life there and is soon planted before he spoils any further. Zim returns to Voe and the Vegetable Kingdom and brings with him a piece of Oris, which he plants alongside Gilo.


A year later, both plants grow side by side, Rosa from the Mangarose bush and Floris from the Oris bush. These vegetable women prove helpful and curious, and after another year a bush blooms from the Mangarose who Zim names Gilrose. He also proves gentle and kind.


10 years later: A decade after Dinny and Zim first visited the Vegetable and Rose Kingdoms, Floris blooms.  Zim reveals to Dinny that he's changed things so that the sapient beings that grow are no longer the mere fruit of the bushes, which are byproduct of the bushes, but the object of the bushes themselves, and will live and meet their own descendents. Zim returns again to the Rose Kingdom and learns that King Filamore is about to be replaced by the new king. He is depressed because he is to be planted and doesn't want to die. Zim suggests he leave the Rose Kingdom and become mortal, which he agrees to, but his subjects won't let him leave, as they want his descendents. Zim makes a flower grow out of Filamore and uses it to pollinate the growing bushes so that Filamore will have plenty of descendents. With that, his subjects allow him to depart. Filamore goes on to become a sailor and gardener, marry and have a family. Zim, meanwhile, returns home to pollinate his growing Mangarose bushes with Filamore's pollen.


A year later, Floris has her descendent and Rosa starts to bloom. Zim decides its time again to visit the Mangaboos, and the three plant-people are excited to meet their relatives. They come before the princess, but she prefers to speak in the company of her sorcerers, Davig and the twin female sorceresses (a new phenomenon for the Mangaboos) Twig and Branch. They each in turn try to defeat Zim with their magic, but he comes out ahead and finally brings forth a cloud of darkness which so frightens the princess that she promises that no harm will befall them. Zim withdraws the cloud and tells the princess his offer to bring them long life. She's interested, but asks what the cost is. He says that if they are to have an extended life they should enjoy it. They must feel. The princess concedes.


75th year of Ozma's reign: Zim sees good on his plan to collect marine specimens for the tanks he built below his arboretum. Taking the form of Winkle, the crusty seaman, and for Dinny his assistant Oni, they traverse to Noland's seas with a magical sphere that shrinks specimens for transport. With a potion of the Sea Fairies, Winkle turns them into merman. Exploring an old wreck, Winkle tells Oni of the time Wammerian was put inside a chest by pirates and thrown overboard. After a long time, the Sea Fairies rescued him, and he spent time amongst them, helping them, and even rescuing one from a sea devil and healing her wounds. In gratitude they gave him the potion they just used to become mermen. Winkle won't say, however, how he attained it, and when they spot sea fairies, they're forced to hide until they pass.


The next month, off the coast of Rinkitink, Winkle finds the cave Zim discovered in his Perpetually Updating Atlas, and creates a portal there. But as they're exploring, a giant electric sea slug enters, and distracted, Oni doesn't realize until too late that he's been swallowed by a shark! Oni pokes him with his knife and the shark spits him out, explaining that he was saving him from the sea slug. Introducing himself as Big Mouth, named for having the biggest mouth of all the big-mouth sharks, they circle round to rescue Winkle. Winkle hopes Aquareine can do something about the electric sea slug, but the shark explains that no one, not even King Anko, can escape getting shocked by the creature, who mysteriously appeared in the sea one day. Even while sleeping, he sends out electric currents. Yet, he and the queen are reluctant to use violence until they know for a certainty that the creature's evil. After much deliberation, Winkle decides to try a storm spell on the sea slug, though he's uncertain what will occur. It produces wild colors that the sea slug thinks are pretty. When Winkle confronts him, the creature tells him he thinks the Sea Fairies are dancing when he vibrates near them, and he doesn't realize it's hurting them. Big Mouth and Aquareine arrive and overhear this. The creature explains that he grew up on magic marine skosh, which made him giant sized and electrical. Aquareine then changes him so that instead of electric current, he produces electric light, and she welcomes him to light up her city every night. The sea slug loves how pretty he now looks, and Aquareine invites everyone to her palace.


The sea fairy Clia inquires how Winkle learned his storm magic, and he tells her it was from an inter-dimensional traveler. At dinner, Aquareine asks him directly how he obtained Wammerian's potion when he promised never to divulge it. Winkle explains that when the Wizard Wam disappeared, he left his books to him, and from them he learned the spell. Aquareine admits she knows they're not who they seem, but also knows they're not evil. Winkle tells her he won't divulge that information as he doesn't want to be famous. The Sea Fairy Queen accepts this, and allows him to return to her domain and harvest the sea orchids and other unique flora. Later, Oni asks how he got the potion from Wammerian, and Winkle admits that the Wizard Wam was his father. Thinking on that, Dinny later tells Zim that the Wishing Necklaces belong to him by right, and Zim notes that they cost his father and him half their magical powers. If he could merely touch them, it would help him regain his full powers.


77th year of Ozma's reign: Zim's marine plant collection grows as Winkle and Oni make a dozen trips to Aquareine's underwater garden. Amongst their collection is the prized sea orchids and sea tales from a sea book tree. One day while dining, they start turning into merman, and just make it to the lotus pool in time. Zim realizes the spell has given them a 13th free use in a baker's dozen.


Continuity Notes

Dating: This saga spans over the course of 80 years beginning in October 1901 during the conclusion of The Marvelous Land of Oz, beginning when Ozma is first disenchanted at the end of that book, then moving to the first year of Ozma's reign (up to chapter 9), the third year (chapter 10), the fifth year (chapter 13), eleventh year (chapter 14-19), 30th year (chapter 20), 32nd year (chapter 21-25, page 260), 33d-34th year (chapters 25-26, page 264), 41st-42nd years (chapter 26), and then jumps up her 75th year (chapter 27-end).


Dragons: The dragonettes are first encountered in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz. Their mother, the she-dragon here named Hadasse, is called by Prince Bobo of Boboland the Dragon of the Peaks. Zim shrinks her to a foot length and opts to keep her as a pet to light his pipe. Her baby dragons are reduced to mouse-size and gifted to Prince Bobo. In 1983 (The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 3: Zim Greenleaf of Oz), Zim is convinced by the Love Fairy, Amouretto of Amouré, that it was wrong to enslave Hadasse and give away her children as pets. So, Zim returns them to where he believes it is safe. Whether he determines that their original home was safe, or they returned their on their own is unknown, but 58 years hence, in Ruggedo in Oz, the dragonettes are back to their former size and living in their original home again. One of them, Vdoxo, remembers Eureka from the first time she visited.


Insects: Zim confirms that "Some insects in Oz can talk, but few can write." (page 60)


Mangaboos: The Mangaboo culture, first detailed in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, is further explored. Mangaboos do not eat, and only feed on soil while they are growing on their stalks. Eating is considered disgusting, and they grow their fruits and vegetables purely for aesthetic purposes. Amongst some known ones are towors and yiktas. Their buildings also grow, and broken parts are planted to become new buildings. There are jobs to be done in the Vegetable Kingdom, and some are more prestigious than others (window washing is prestigious because it brings them to the higher levels). They do not have personal names. The higher their dwelling the more sun they gain, but most do not get past the 10th level. Their lifespan from the time they're picked is five years. Though they cannot move or speak while growing, they can hear and learn, and teachers read them the laws of the kingdom. Ugliness is a capital offense, with those born imperfect allowed to live, but given to the Twining Vines to destroy at the end, and not planted again. This is called the Weeding Out, and is done to preserve the beauty of their race. A worse punishment called Peeling is also done. Their six suns are named Midron, Firenth, Wichtar, Augreth, Imton and Kizrioth. That the rulers of the Vegetable Kingdom later show up at King Evardo's 60th birthday party (in The Tired Tailor of Oz) shows that Zim's experiments with making them less violent proved successful. Another trip to the Vegetable Kingdom is made by the Wizard, Dorothy and Eureka in Ruggedo in Oz, where they meet Queen Ssyr and discover a far less hostile community than the one they first encountered in 1902.


Rimmers: One of the ancient inhabitants of Oz who used to raid the lands to the south. See The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 2: Tippetarius in Oz.


Seven Blue Mountains: Also known as the King's Crown, it is located south of the Headlands (in the Gillikin country) but northeast of Keretaria in the Munchkin country. It is southwest of Lostland, which connects to the region via a single pass in the Forbidden Mountains. The seven mountains are each named. The largest one in the middle is Mount Sapphire, the northernmost one is Mount Turquoise, then going around from the right are Mount Aquamarine, Mount Azurite, Mount Sodalite, Mount Lapis Lazuli and Mount Iolite.


Switcheroo Spell: Although it's generally believed that Mombi didn't perform the switcheroo spell until 1892 when she obtained a year-old Ozma, the fact that she was petitioned by the Queen of Lostland to transform her baby boy into a girl while he was still an infant means that Mombi performed the Switcheroo Spell between Ozma and Tip (which she could do from a distance) while the baby Ozma was still under the Wizard's care. This happened in either 1887 or earlier in 1873, depending on when exactly Tippetarius was born (see below). The Wizard was likely not informed (by Ozma's nurse) of the baby's mysterious sex change since he never mentions it, and probably wouldn't have even noticed.


Tippetarius: As a baby, Prince Tippetarius of Lostand was transformed into a girl by Mombi at the behest of his mother, whose husband King Whippetarius threatened to kill the child if it wasn't born a girl. The mother named her now-daughter Princess Amalea. The form she took was that of Ozma's, as Mombi performed a Switcheroo Spell between the two children. Ozma then took on the form of Tippetarius, and with it the name Tip. Nine years later, when Tip was disenchanted back into her original female form as Ozma, Princess Amalea was also disenchanted back into his original body of Tip. Confused, he escaped Lostland, and took on the name Amadin, and eventually was nicknamed Dinny. There appears to be a discrepancy with Tip's age. He notes his age in chapter 4 (page 44) as 28, which means that he was born in 1873. However, in chapter 26 (page 273), which takes place in 1943*, he identifies his age as 56 years old, which places his birth-date in 1887. This is a 14 year difference that has to be chalked up to historian error, as Dinny would have no reason to lie about his age to either person. This is an important date, as well, because it reveals when Mombi performed the Switcheroo Spell on baby Ozma. Currently, the Royal Timeline of Oz goes with the age provided in chapter 26, which gives us the 1887 date, five years before the Wizard actually gave the baby into Mombi's keeping.


Wooden Gargoyles: Although Dinny believes the gargoyles to be extinct due to the fire the Wizard caused during his visit (in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz), which destroyed much of their realm, and Ianu says the survivors who fled into Voe were killed by its inhabitants, in fact, several Wooden Gargoyles did escape, as evidenced by The Braided Man of Oz and Ruggedo in Oz. By the time, the Wizard returns to the city in the latter story (in 1991, fifty-eight years after this story), it is rebuilt and repopulated.


Wizard Wam: The narrative gives his proper name as Wammerian Hadrakis, and hints that he's an inter-dimensional travel. He's also the father of Zim the Flying Sorcerer. Wam made the Wishing Necklaces, missing at the time of this story, but later discovered in The Wishing Horse of Oz, which drained him of half his power, as well as half of his son's.


Wunchie and the Magic Hammer: This story provides a date for Handy Mandy in Oz at 1935, and gives a role to the witch Wunchie who was named, but never appears in the latter work. So too, it expands on the character of Himself the Elf, who is shown to not want to do the evil things that Wunchie commands him through the Hammer. The history of the Hammer itself is given in The Silver Sorceress of Oz.


Zim: The son of the Wizard Wam, and technically over 3000 years old (in 1944, p. 273), the eight foot two inch Zim Greenleaf is the Flying Sorcerer of Oz, who secretly lives upon Mount Azurite in the Seven Blue Mountains of the Munchkin Country. An ardent botanist, as well as a sorcerer, he maintains a giant conservatory in which he grows numerous plants and trees from all over Oz. In order to help people and yet maintain his anonymity, Zim takes on the form of several different wizards, including the dwarf Brown Bleegum, the free-spirited young wizard Ganalan, the melancholy minstrel Vega, the strong-man Rooster, the red-haired Green Knight, and the crusty seaman Winkle. See The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 2: Tippetarius in Oz for more information.


* Chapter 21 is explicitly dated at the 32nd year of Ozma's reign, which is 1933. Over the course of the next few chapters, ten years elapse: It is 9 years from the time King Filamore is picked from the Rosebush to the time he is replaced by the new king and saved by Zim (page 265), and 10 years from the time Dinny first visits the Mangaboos to the time he and Zim return to extend their lives (page 273).








A Pumpkin Patch in Oz

This story appears in The Corn Mansion of Oz.


Synopsis: Concerned about his head spoiling, Jack Pumpkinhead and Ozma seek out a pumpkin patch in which to grow new heads. Because pumpkins are out of season (noted in The Road to Oz), this must be March. So, Jack gets the idea to grow his own pumpkins.


Thanks to an old Munchkin farmer, Jack finds a place just outside the Emerald City where he can grow a pumpkin patch. Still worried that he'll spoil before the pumpkins can grow large enough, Jack seeks a potion from Mombi's hut, but meets with an accident. Thanks to the Scarecrow, he's saved, but Glinda arrives to share with him the news that his head will be fine until the pumpkins are ripe, and that one will grow so large, he can build a house inside it.


Jack learns everything he can about farming pumpkins, and discovers that Glinda's words prove true. Jack finally has Ozma carve him a new head on April 9th, 1902.






The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz 

The Royal Timeline of Oz considers The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz a deuterocanonical work


Synopsis: Bored with her new duties as princess of Oz, Ozma decides to disguise herself as Tip and sneak off for some fun. Along the way, she discovers the truth about the Hammerheads and the Forest of Fighting Trees, rescues Quox the Dragon, who accidentally fell through the Hollow Tube into Oz, and meets the Fairy Queen Lurline.


Continuity Notes

Dating: This story takes place in the Spring, and can be surmised that it is the very beginning of the season (assuming Oz, like the U.S. utilizes the vernal equinox of the Northern Hemisphere), early March 1902. At this point, the royal family of Ev has been sold to the Nome King. This story leads directly into Ozma of Oz.

Jellia Jamb: Jellia is noted to be the daughter of Jimb Jamb, a neighbor of Mombi and Tip in the Gillikin Country.


The Deadly Desert: The Deadly Desert is confirmed to have been turned that way from the Great Sandy Waste by a fairy. Lurline is shown to have done this in The Witch Queen of Oz.


Dragons: The Original Dragon is named Skanderbeg, though this seems unlikely as this is the name of a 15th century Albanian Lord whose name is an Arabic derivation of Alexander the Great, which means "man's defender and chieftain." More likely it's used as a title, though how the Original Dragon came to be known as "man's defender" is a story that has not yet been told, but it appears to have a connection to the origin story of fairies as man's guardians. The forthcoming work The Ancient Dawn of Oz will address these issues. The narrative notes that the Original Dragon and his three companions had thought that nothing of importance had occurred in the last 50,000 years. While this can be taken literally as the coming of the Original Dragon to An, it seems more likely that it's not intended to be an actual date, but rather a humorous figure of speech to define a long period of time. It's more likely that his arrival precedes Hiergargo's creation of the Hollow Tube, which allowed them instantaneous travel (see Tik-Tok of Oz).


The Empire of the Fairy Fellowship: The Land of An (first identified as such in The Law of Oz and Other Stories), where the Original Dragon and Tititi-Hoochoo live, is called at this time "The Empire of the Fairy Fellowship." Baum had never identified it by name.


Forest King: When the Cowardly Lion and Hungry Tiger leave the forest to live in the Emerald City, the Cowardly Lion appoints a Kalidah (whose one of his chief councilors) as regent. He'll only seldom return there, such as in an emergency affecting animals in The Emerald City Mirror #21.


The Forest of Fighting Trees: No longer a forest of fighting trees due to Ozma's aid in this story, this is the forest from which the Sawhorse's wood derives. The forest is again revisited and given more of a back-story in A Wonderful Journey in Oz. The name of the dryad who rules here is given as Lark Ellen, though the latter calls her Oakaria. Both are fine. The latter reveals that the forest of talking trees was first created by a fairy under the control of an evil sorcerer, who appears to have brought in evil tree spirits called Yamadryads. It was Oakaria who brought in the hamadryads from Burzee to help restore the forest and drive out the Yamadryads, but it wasn't until Ozma came and taught Lark Ellen/Oakaria a lesson in forgiveness that the darkness of the forest began to lift.


Giant Spider: The giant spider who the Cowardly Lion beheaded was created by a standard-sized spider by the Wicked Witch of the West to destroy Glinda (How the Wizard Came to Oz). Glinda sent the creature far off into the Great Forest of the Quadling Country. As told in this story, she later awoke, found her head and shrunk back to standard spider size, indicative of the magical enchantment that she underwent. She had a son named Fiddle, who was born giant-sized (Oziana 2010: "Fiddle's Revenge,") likely due to the fact that he was birthed during the time she was also giant-sized.


Hammer-heads and Opaloz: The Hammer-heads were actually put in place to guard the Opaloz, which was put in place by Lurline to continually heal the land and ensure that it remains a fairyland. This item likely works in tandem with the Enchanted Apples from The Enchanted Apples of Oz and the Speckled Rose from The Speckled Rose of Oz. Two others are said to know of the Opaloz besides Glinda. These might be Ozma's fairy-cousins Ozana and Ozga.


Language in Oz: The absence of a language barrier in Oz is explained on page 154.


Location, location, location: The location of the Hammer-heads and Forest of Fighting Trees is addressed, as Ozma and the Sawhorse agree that the Scarecrow was wrong in his depiction of them being in proximity to the Emerald City, explaining that perhaps his new brains weren't quite in order. The story's placement of them is in accordance with later books, Baum's map and the Martin & Haff map.


Lurline: This is Ozma's first time meeting with her subjects outside of the Emerald City, and the first time she re-connects with Lurline after having been a fairy in her band. Lurline also encourages her policy of non-violence and compassion. They will meet again in The Magic Carpet of Oz, Leprechauns in Oz, and The Magical Mimics in Oz, and The Law of Oz and Other Stories. Lurline's absence of many years is explained in The Magic Umbrella of Oz. Ozma goes to meet with her again in The Emerald City Mirror 5th story arc: "Transference of Spirits."


The Magic Picture: The Magic Picture is a gift to Ozma from the powerful fairy Tititi-Hoochoo (who first appeared Tik-Tok of Oz) in thanks for her returning the dragon Quox unharmed. It can be surmised that the very similar Magic Picture utilized by the King of the Fairy Beavers in John Dough and the Cherub was also a gift of Tititi-Hoochoo's. In The Shaggy Man of Oz, however, it's noted on page 250 that Ozma says "the Magic Picture is my own fairy creation, and I understand its magic better than anyone else." This is reconciled by the fact that Ozma is a fairy and had a life before being reborn in Oz in 1742. She was part of Lurline's band, and very well have originally made the Magic Picture. Tititi-Hoochoo's gift was, thus, a subtle way to reconnect her to her pre-Ozian past.


Middle-Earth: The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz makes a connection to Tolkien's Middle Earth. On page 139, Ozma challenges Quox to a riddle-game, and uses one of the very same riddles, "a box without hinges, key or lid, yet golden treasure inside is hid." This was Tolkien's own composition (see The Annotated Hobbit: Revised and Expanded, page 123; HarperCollins), and doesn't derive from an earlier fairy-tale/fantasy, which solidifies the connection. The stories of Middle-Earth would, of course, have taken place many years earlier. Page 195 also mentions the existence of orcs, goblins and trolls. This tie has been strengthened in other stories, such as "The Orange Ogres in Oz."


Mr. Tinker: Mr. Tinker's ladder is said to have been telescoping, and a prototype of it allowed Wainwright to cross the Deadly Desert.


New Roads: Glinda acknowledges having built a road to bypass the Hill of the Hammer-heads.


The Quadrants of Oz: The original names of the four quadrants of Oz is here for the first time listed: The Golden West for the Winkies, Rosewood Meandows for Quadling country, The Land of Purple Mountains for the Gillikins and the Land of Sky Blue Waters for the Munchkins.


Quox's age: Quox's age can only be guesstimated from the information provided on pages 35, 114, 121 and 155. Tik-Tok of Oz provides a more precise age of nearly 3,056 years old, which makes him 3,053 years old at this time. He is made to forget his journey to Oz by Tititi-Hoochoo.


The Red Wagon: Ozma receives the Red Wagon from a certain Dcim Wainwright, who was the apprentice of Mr. Smith (of Smith & Tinker).


Rulers of Faerie: In addition to the Original Dragon, who is lord of all creatures, the story introduced the other three of the "Big Four," the Unicorn Monokeros (which means "the single opportune time and moment,") who is lord of all beasts, the Phoenix who is lord of all birds, and the Tortoise, who is lord of all reptiles.


Visits to Mombi: On pages 77-78, Glinda incorrectly attributes the nature of the Wizard's three visits to Mombi, the details of which were not revealed to her until she interviewed him in Oz and the Three Witches.



Cowardly Lion and Hungry Tiger: The meeting of the Cowardly Lion and Hungry Tiger proves a conflict with Edward Einhorn's "Ozma Sees Herself," in which Ozma has already spent time with the Cowardly Lion, however, the removal of pages 185-187, which are extraneous to the overall story, eliminates this problem. It is clear from prior stories that the Cowardly Lion had spent time in the Emerald City with the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman, and must have returned there after the events of The Marvelous Land of Oz, to meet Ozma. Then, following the events of "Ozma Sees Herself," he returns to his forest and has not been back in some time. When Ozma appears in this story, she's disguised as a boy, so that the lion does not recognize her.


Roquat: This history of Roquat the Nome King is presented: Roquat is known to have been born in 917 as per Pirates in Oz. Although there is no mention of his brothers, he is shown to be the offspring of two formerly warring underground fairy races, who united in marriage by the benevolent Thill princess Yenoh and the malevolent Ghorn prince Yetsan, the latter who taught Roquat to be wicked and dissimulate. Kaliko is said to be a Thill, as well. Nathan M. DeHoff has suggested that both are subsets of gnomes, the Thills being politically altruistic while the Ghorns are militaristic. When Roquat comes to power, he eliminates another two warring tribes, the goblins and trolls, by transforming them into nomes. This could explain how Roquat is both a gnome and a Nome King. Apparently, this is not worldwide, but only those in the vicinity of his realm. The hobgoblins—noted to be reformed goblins—are still around, though in few numbers, attempting to achieve good in Ev. The story predicts the Nome King's eventual turn to good in Dr. Angelina Bean in Oz and Ruggedo in Oz. Clearly, this is not the Nome King met by Santa centuries or millennia earlier (who may be Goldemar from Zauberlinda the Wise Witch), but there's much yet to be revealed of the history of Roquat. For more information, see The History of the Nome King in the Appendices.


Stork Maidens: One of the primary subjects of criticism of this story is the stork maidens, which are said to be Glinda's girls rather than actual storks (page 130). Two points: In all but Glinda of Oz, her chariot is said to be flown by swans. "The Silver Jug" clarifies that Glinda has two chariots, a golden one drawn by twenty-six swans and a silver one drawn by thirty-two storks. A Promise Kept in Oz indicates that Glinda switches off between her storks and swans. It's clear this is to allow a proper work-life balance for her birds. Yet, even with a regular rotation there will come times when neither is available, and this would be when Glinda uses her magic to transform a reserve of handmaidens into storks, a tradition that perhaps started on a day when there were no swans or storks on duty. Time Traveling in Oz again features the girl-storks.








Ozma of Oz

Baum's third Oz book of the Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!


Synopsis: Tossed overboard on route to Australia with her Uncle Henry, Dorothy and a chicken end up washed ashore in the Land of Ev. The chicken Billina can now speak, and with Dorothy discover a metal man named Tik-Tok, who has to be wound to function. As they head to the castle of Princess Langwidere, he explains that the King of Ev sold his family to the Nome King before drowning himself. Langwidere has a collection of heads, and seeks to attain Dorothy's as well. When Dorothy refuses, she locks her up. Meanwhile, having heard of the plight of the Royal Family of Ev, Ozma has brought an army across the Deadly Desert. There, she and Dorothy meet for the first time. She secures her from Langwidere and together they head to the caverns of the Nome King. Unwilling to part with his new treasures (the Nome King has transformed the royal family into ornaments), Roquat the Red allows the Ozian embassy to guess which ornaments are Evian royalty, but after a number of tries, will become an ornament themselves. This trick is uncovered by Billina, who helps Dorothy guess correctly, and who uses her eggs to defeat the Nome King, as eggs are discovered to be poisonous to Nomes.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Based on several factors, it can be determined that this story takes place in mid-March, with Dorothy's trip to Australia beginning in early January (See Appendices: Dating the Early Books for more information on the chronological placement of this book). While the adventure itself takes seven days (see The Chronology of Oz), Dorothy stays in Oz for "several weeks" before asking to be sent to Australia. During this time, The Enchanted Apples of Oz occurs, as does the first two chapters of The Nome King's Shadow in Oz. The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz immediately precede it.


Characters: This is Baum's introduction to Tik-Tok (generally regarded as the first fictional robot), Billina the Yellow Hen, the Hungry Tiger, Roquat the Nome King, who will appear as a regular villain throughout the Oz series (see The History of the Nome King in the Appendices), the Land of Ev, and royal family of Ev, including the infamous Princess Langwidere. Prince Evrob appears again in "Evrob and the Nomes" (Oziana 2004).


Discrepancy: A minor matter is Tik-Tok's knowledge of King Evoldo's suicide, which seems unlikely since Evoldo locked him up first. A simple solution may be that Evoldo told Tik-Tok of his plans to throw himself and the key into the ocean.


Ev: Not much is known of Ev, as most of the time is spent in the first of Baum's underworld dominions, but what little is depicted is a land that has few if any talking animals; death is the norm for all but the underground Nomes (who are a kind of rock fairy) and Jinnicky the Red Jinn, who lives in the north and won't be introduced until Jack Pumpkinhead of Oz. It's a mystery that Billina can speak when other chickens in Ev cannot. Additionally, Jim the Cab horse, Eureka, and the Nine Tiny Piglets (Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz) all can speak prior to entering Oz. Hank the Mule couldn't until he was in Oz. Ev is more deeply explored in Paul Dana's forthcoming book, The Immortal Longings of Oz.


The location of Ev proves even more problematic, as they return to Oz from across the Deadly Desert, and appear in the Munchkin Country. Later Baum books, however, place Ev across from the Winkie Country. The Haff & Martin maps follow Baum's later statements and place Ev west of Oz, but there are admittedly no easy answers to this issue. I'm inclined to agree with this later designation and say that at some point during their journey across the desert, Dorothy tried to use the Magic Belt to transport them, and ended up in the Munchkin Country (Dorothy uses the Belt as a transportation device in The Enchanted Apples of Oz, which takes place a short time later). Incidentally, The Road to Oz locates it north of Oz.


King of the Munchkins: The identity of the King of Munchkins was once a mystery. As King Cheeriobed was trapped in the Ozure Isles by the monster Quiberon, why did the current king of the Munchkins not tell Ozma this? And if he did, or if he was King Cheeriobed (who perhaps was not in the Ozure Isles when Quiberon arrived), and he does tell Ozma, then why does she have no knowledge of their situation? The solution turned out to be that this "King of the Munchkins" did not tell Ozma of the plight of the former king because he did not want to lose power. This is revealed in "Four Views of General Jinjur," which reveals that he was a fraud, connected neither to Cheeriobed's line nor to the Seebanian Kings (which is Unc Nunkie and Ojo's line). His name is Froom, and he appears in "Vaneeda of Oz."


The Magic Belt: This is another source of interest. It is likely what protects Roquat from the poison of the eggs that the Scarecrow throws at his face (although Tik-Tok of Oz mentions there being a little known magic word that a Nome can say immediately to protect him). Dorothy takes the Nome King's Magic Belt (which she gives to Ozma at the end of the story). Under Roquat's use, it failed to work on wood, though later on, in other stories, it does. This was explained in "Ruggedo and the School of Magic," when Glinda discovered that the Belt has a glass jewel instead of a diamond one. Upon replacing it, the Belt can work on wood again.


Magic Carpet: In The Emerald City Mirror #48, it's explained that the Magic Carpet not only protects its users from the deadly sands, but from the noxious gases that arise from the sands.


Omby Amby is for the first time named (he was formerly the Soldier with the Green Whiskers, and is identified as such in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz).


Princess Langwidere: Langwidere is a bit of a mystery, as she possesses the ability to live without a head and to put on other heads that have been chopped off of other women. The latter only retain vestigial traits, which Langwidere takes on when she wears the head, but not their complete personalities or memories. Langwidere's disposition changes with each head, but she remains Princess Langwidere and does not become the persons who formerly had their heads. This is reminiscent of the monarch and royal family of Mo (as seen in The Magical Monarch of Mo), who are able to switch heads and lose limbs without pain or loss of life. That Princess Langwidere thinks this is normal indicates that she may be from Mo herself, or be a child of Mo royalty, married into the Evian royal family. For an early history of Langwidere, see "The Princess of Ev." The upcoming story "The Trade: A Langwidere Story" will look at the events following this story, while the forthcoming anthology, The Thirty Heads of Princess Langwidere of Ev will deal with the back-stories of her many heads.


Queen of Ev and the Royal Family: Baum names the entire royal family, except the Queen of Ev. She is given a name in The Tired Tailor of Oz: Queen Evraline. Her original name, as Princess Bevina, was given in "The Princess of Ev." She hails from Boboland. The rest of the Royal family are thus named: Princess Evanna, Prince Evardo, Princess Evedna, Princess Evella, Prince Evington, Princess Evirene, Prince Evring, Prince Evrob, Prince Evroland, and Princess Evrose.


Return to Oz: The 1985 Disney film has several sequences and lines of dialogue taken directly from this book, although Princess Langwidere is combined with Mombi, and Dorothy and Ozma's histories are different.


Smith & Tinker: Rejano Edison Smith and Ezra Pascal Tinker's inventions can be found all over Oz and Ev, and appear in various stories. The men themselves reappear alive and well, the former in Oziana 1987's "Button-Bright and the Knit-Wits of Oz" and the latter in "Mr. Tinker in Oz" and the forthcoming book The Lost Queen of Oz. They are now living in Oz. Years later, Smith's grandson reopens Smith & Tinker in Ev and manages it under his more practical, if less imaginative leadership (Wooglet in Oz).






The Princess of Ev

Available to read here


Synopsis: Princess Langwidere (from Ozma of Oz) loses her head to her uncle, King Evoldo, who, from then on, brings her the heads of various maids and servants.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Story takes place over the course of Princess Langwidere's life, beginning at age 7 in 1874 to to age 36, during the time of Ozma of Oz. This gives us dates for her birth, in 1866, as well as for the reign of King Evoldo, which began in 1852.


Princess Langwidere: After King Evoldo beheads her at age seven, he replaces her head with that of her maid, who was probably her age. Each year he procures a new head for her, though on his Silver Jubilee, in 1877, he procures three, one for her birthday, one for his 25th year as king, and one for his engagement to Princess Bevina. A full version of Princess Langwidere's past and that of her heads is forthcoming in the anthology The Thirty Heads of Princess Langwidere of Ev.


Queen of Ev: The narrative gives her original name, as Princess Bevina when she is a Princess of Boboland. In The Tired Tailor of Oz, her married name is Queen Evraline. The Immortal Longings of Oz (forthcoming) explains how King Evoldo expected his foreign-born wife to take an Ev name, symbolically suppressing her individuality.






The Enchanted Apples of Oz

History: Adventures in Oz (where this story was collected) is considered Book 54 in the Sovereign Sixty (and Supreme Seventy-Five)!


Synopsis: When Dorothy, Scarecrow and Billina stumble upon a mysterious castle, they learn from its keeper Valynn the secret of the Wicked Witch of the South, and the power of the enchanted apples to keep Oz a fairyland. When Bortag, who is in love with the sleeping witch, arrives and steals the apples, the witch awakens and all of Oz is threatened.


Continuity Notes

Dating: This story was once believed to have taken place at the end of Ozma of Oz, but that was not the author's original intent. Based on the succession of witches in the south, specifically the appointment of Singra's sister Angra to Wicked Witch of the South, I've moved it to 1943.


Wicked Witch of the South: As per the author, the unnamed Wicked Witch of the South, who Glinda put to sleep in 1803, is the sister of the other Wicked Witch of the South Singra. The Royal Timeline of Oz has her named Angra (see Names and Relations of the Wicked Witches in the Appendices). Both are cousins of the East and West witches. Angra is able to use the Belt to turn Dorothy into a wooden statue, which reveals that the Belt could indeed be used in this way, something Roquat and the Nomes did not know how to do. In "Ruggedo and the School of Magic," it is discovered that a precious stone had been replaced on the belt with a glass one. The Wicked Witch of the South likely combined her own powers with that of the Belt in order to turn Dorothy to wood.


The Enchanted Apples, which are protected by Valynn, represent the second magical element that maintains Oz's enchantment. The first is the Opaloz, guarded by the Hammer-heads, which Ozma learned of in The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz. The third is the Speckled Rose, protected by Glinda, which the Scarecrow learned about when he was king in The Speckled Rose of Oz.


New characters and places: This story introduces a flying swordfish named Drox, and the ugly town of Glun (south of Rigamarole in the Quadling Country), where Bortag comes from.







The Nome King’s Shadow in Oz

Synopsis: When the Nome Kingdom is under invasion by Ozites and Billina's eggs, the Nome King is so frightened, that his shadow detaches from him and comes to life. Calling himself Shady, he determines to avenge the Nome King's honor, and pursue the Ozites back to Oz, where he takes possession of several beings, including one of Billina's chicks, which he uses to cause mischief.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Begins during the climax of Ozma of Oz, when the fear of Billina and her eggs causes Roquat the Nome King to detach from his shadow, which, unbeknownst to anyone, comes to life. The main action of the story begins about two months later when Shady finally figures out a way to get across the Deadly Desert (shadows disintegrate in the sun).


Living shadow: The concept of an actual sapient shadow was first mentioned in The Wonder City of Oz with the Heelers, whose shadows abused them so much they only went about on moonless nights.






Back to the Timeline






Eureka in Oz

Synopsis: Novella that explains the mystery of how Eureka got back to Oz (she appears out of the blue in The Patchwork Girl of Oz after being sent to Kansas in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz) and how she went from being white to pink.


Her life in Kansas proves unsatisfying, and Eureka ends up following Dorothy back to Oz in The Road to Oz, concealing her pursuit initially from lack of trust in the Shaggy Man, and then because she doesn't want to be sent back to Kansas.


After sparing the Queen of the Field Mice, Eureka is sent to Professor Nowitall, who teaches her about Oz and manners. When the Red Menace, a rogue tixie (a being responsible for the colors of Oz) is loose in the land, Eureka captures it and returns it to its domain, but turns pink in the process. The story concludes shortly after the events of The Emerald City of Oz, when Eureka and the Professor go to the Emerald City to ask Ozma if she can stay.


Continuity Notes

Colors: In order for this story to fit alongside the Oziana 1984 story, "The Piglet's Revenge," it has to be assumed that either the tixie's color eventually wore off, or that the Wizard restored her original color, so that the cat became white again, a restoration that was ruined when she started chasing the piglets who revenged themselves on her. In The Lost King of Oz, Dorothy mentions having a white kitten, which can be seen as a historian error, or an indication that the pink color wore off again (though if so, Eureka had been pink for some time, and may have chosen to re-pink herself afterwards). In the Oziana 1995 story "Pigmentation,"  Eureka claims to have chosen her own color, so there may be yet a third method in which she turned (and stayed) pink.


Continuity: A digital version of this story is currently available (click on the image above), while a new version of is being prepared by The Royal Publisher of Oz, which will also take into account the short story, "The Road Built in Hope."


Dating: This story spans the course of a few years, beginning shortly before the events of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, with Eureka kicking around in Australia as a kitten when Dorothy finds her after she returns from Oz (as detailed in Ozma of Oz), then on her trip to San Francisco, where the events of "The Road Built in Hope" and Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz occur.


Professor Nowitall: The Professor Nowitall in this story is Professor Nowitall Jr., who borrowed his father's magnifying screen for his class, the same class in which the Wogglebug grew and became the famous professor. The fate of his father is told in Bucketheads in Oz.






The Road Built in Hope

Available to read here!


Synopsis: Dorothy spends time with two devoted women in San Francisco.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Takes place during the time Dorothy stays in San Francisco, just prior to Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz.


Locations: The City of Paris department storeThe Palace Hotel, and Sutro Baths were all famous establishments existing at the time of Dorothy's trip.


Suffragists: Baum married into a famous suffragist family hence the gratuitous suffragist mentions here.


Title: Story's title is taken from Marion Zimmer Bradley's quote, “The road that is built in hope is more pleasant to the traveler than the road built in despair, even though they both lead to the same destination.”





General Jinjur of Oz

History: Uncompleted and unpublished until the 2006 publication of Adventures in Oz (which collects the Shanower graphic novels), "General Jinjur of Oz" details a previously untold story of Roquat's first attempt to regain his Magic Belt. The first half is fully illustrated and lettered, but the second half exists only in script form with page sketches to accompany it.


Synopsis: Along with Professor Wogglebug, the Tin Woodman, Scarecrow, Tik-Tok, Jack Pumpkinhead and Omby Amby, Ozma sees in the Magic Picture that Roquat is preparing an army of Nomes to attack Oz. As Omby Amby doesn't wish to go, the Scarecrow suggests that Ozma employ General Jinjur and her Army of Revolt. Jinjur gathers girls from all four quadrants of Oz to join. Armed with knitting needles and eggs, the army is sent by Ozma to a canyon above the underground Nome Kingdom by means of the Magic Belt. Jinjur is given a ring that will bring them back when they've won.


The battle ensues, but the girls are no match for the Nome army. Jinjur has herself brought before Roquat to demand his surrender, but he insists he's the wronged party. She attempts to box his ears, but what little magic he has protects him from her assault. Because she's broken their truce by means of violence, he has Kaliko escort her to the prison.


Kaliko shows her through a huge cavern where they see giant hot Lava Lizard, which the Nomes came upon near to the earth's core. They imprisoned it and brought it their king's domain. Because the creature can cross the Deadly Desert without harm, they anticipate climbing upon her huge back once she cools off and entering Oz.  Seeing that she looks depressed, Jinjur encourages Kaliko to speak to the creature and try to cheer it up. The Lava Lizard is unhappy about being imprisoned, and this gives Jinjur an idea.


When the day comes that the Lava Lizard has cooled off, the Nome army arrives to mount him. Before they can she begins laying eggs! In terror, the Nomes run, and Jinjur presses the magic ring, signaling Ozma to bring the army back to Oz. She's hailed as a hero, but admits to Ozma that she looks forward to a little peace.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Takes place shortly after Ozma of Oz, before the Wizard returns to Oz, and very early in Ozma's reign, as evidenced by her unusual recourse to violence.


Lava Lizard: The Lava Lizard is a giant underground creature that lives in lava. Similar to some of the other fire creatures that live under Oz (see Appendices: Deadly Desert Inhabitants), it can cross the Deadly Desert without harm.






Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz

  Baum's fourth Oz book of the Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!


Synopsis: In California, Dorothy travels with her "second cousin" Zeb Hugson (his Uncle Hugson was married to Em's sister, which makes them not related at all) on his cab-horse Jim, along with her newly acquired pet kitten Eureka, when an earthquake occurs, causing them to fall into a hole in the ground. Terrified, they find themselves in the underground Vegetable Kingdom of the Mangaboos. There, they discover a race of heartless people who grow like plants in a greenhouse. Dorothy is then reacquainted with Oscar the Diggs, the former Wizard of Oz, whose balloon also fell into a hole, dropping him into the same location. With him are nine tiny piglets who perform tricks for him.


They escape the Mangaboos who seek to destroy them, and go through the Black Pit, where they find themselves in the Valley of Voe. In this strange land, the people eat of the Dama-fruit to become invisible in order to escape being killed by roving bands of invisible bears. Their narrow escape from that valley takes them to Pyramid Mountain, wherein they meet the gentle Braided Man who makes flutters and rustles. Finally, they enter into a country of wooden gargoyles, who they must fight to escape, and, at last, a den of dragonettes before Ozma brings them to Oz.


After introductions and a celebration, the Wizard gifts Ozma one of his piglets, but after it disappears from Ozma's chamber, where Eureka is found, the kitten is placed on trial, and accused of having eaten the piglet. The Tin Woodman defends her, whilst the Wogglebug stands for the prosecution. The former fails to convince the jury, and Eureka is pronounced guilty, with the punishment of death for the crime. Eureka allows this to happen before producing evidence of her innocence.


Zeb and Jim are anxious to get back to their ranch in San Francisco, the latter after having humiliated himself after kicking the Sawhorse, who won in a race against him, so Ozma sends Dorothy to Kansas, where Uncle Henry and Aunt Em are in mourning (thinking Dorothy dead), and Zeb and Jim to their ranch.


Continuity Notes

Animal Rights: Eureka's trial for murder provides an early indication that animals in Oz are viewed equally with humans, and are not eaten as food. The Road to Oz and Tik-Tok of Oz note that all animals in Oz talk. which would mean that all "meat" in Oz grows on trees and plants, as indicated in Ozma of Oz, and underscored in several later stories (e.g., "The Way of a Lion"). 


Characters: Zeb and Jim are two of the few visiting Oz characters who don't stay in Oz. They will not appear in an Oz story again until the prelude of Jeff Rester's Death Comes to Oz. Jim the Cabhorse is said to be the only real horse in Oz, which is another generalization that Baum contradicts, as the Cowardly Lion and Tip are both familiar with horses.


Dating: This story takes place in late April, as Dorothy as on her way home from California after having spent a considerable time vacationing in Australia with Uncle Henry. (see Dating the Early Oz Books in the Appendices for more details). It takes place over the course of 11 days (see the Day-to-Day Chronology).


Deus Ex-Machina: Baum intercuts the climax of the narrative by having Ozma use the Magic Belt to whisk them to the Royal Palace, rather than letting them come up with a solution to their dilemma themselves. On two separate occasions, authors provided "what if" scenarios that told the story as if Ozma had not done so. The first was in Oziana 1977's "What If They Had Taken the Other Path?" The second was in The Emerald City Mirror #47 story "What If?" A similar situation presented itself with the Rinkitink in Oz deus-ex-machina, which was finally solved at the centennial anniversary of that book with the new book, King Rinkitink.


Dragons: The dragonettes claim to trace their heritage back 20,000 years ago, "when humans had not yet been born," to the Green Dragon of Atlantis. The Green Dragon itself must trace his heritage to the Original Dragon who purportedly dates back 50,000 years, though that is likely an exaggeration, and lives in Tititi-Hoochoo's Land of An (The Empire of the Fairy Fellowship) [page 169.] They reappear in several future stories, including The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1: The Disenchanted Princess in Oz, The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 3: Zim Greenleaf of Oz, Ruggedo in Oz, and The Emerald City Mirror #11.


Language: Ozma says that Oz means "good and great in our language." Page 194. What language that is cannot be ascertained. Is this a current language that everyone comes to speak when they enter the Nonestic lands? Is this a former language that was once spoken? These questions may be answered in an upcoming book.


Magic Picture: Dorothy notes that Ozma checks in on her everyday at 4:00. (Page 179). This is a change from when she last spoke to her in Ozma of Oz, in which Ozma said she'd check in on her every Saturday. It seems likely that Dorothy paid an untold visit to Ozma one Saturday while Dorothy was in Australia with Uncle Henry, and Ozma updated the instructions so that she'd check in on her every day at 4:00. It also seems possible that Ozma kept (or initially gave) both instructions, as Dorothy Haas' Random House Oz books utilize both scenarios.


Sequels: The underworld realms, including the Valley of the Mangaboos, is visited and dealt with by Zim in The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1: The Disenchanted Princess in Oz. The Braided Man appears in several later stories, including The Road to Oz, a book named for him, an Oziana 1997 story (in which he's offered residence in the Emerald City) and The Emerald City Mirror. Eureka stars in a book of her own, which tells of her adventures prior to, and after this story, and which explains how she came back to Oz and, along with the Oziana 1984 story, "The Piglet's Revenge, or How Eureka Became Pink," how she became permanently pink.


Vegetable Kingdom of Mangaboos: It's noted on the maps that this and its adjacent underground lands lie under Boboland.


Witch History: Ozma offers some History of the land, indicating that there were indeed four Wicked Witches (of which Mombi was Wicked Witch of the North) who "leagued together" to depose the the King of Oz, Ozma's grandfather (who would be King Oz, aka Pastoria I). Mombi abducted King Oz and later Ozma's father Pastoria II. By the time the Wizard arrives in Oz, however, Mombi was removed from power by the Good Witch of the North (this has to be the one prior to Orin), and the Wicked Witch of the South (all three of them, as it turns out) were defeated by Glinda.


Wogglebug: The behavior of the Wogglebug, his attitude towards the Wizard, and the change in Ozma's policies are elaborated on in the short story "The Prosecutor."


Wooden Gargoyles: Although this realm was said to be burned by the fire, many if not all survived, including the tamed gargoyle Gorry from The Braided Man of Oz. The Wizard, Dorothy and Eureka visits the rebuilt city many decades later in Ruggedo in Oz, which notes that the actual name of the realm is the Land of Naught.


Zeb Hugson: Zeb won't be seen again until the events of Jeff Rester's upcoming Death Comes to Oz (and appears in the "Prelude," which can be read here.







Raindrops and Poppies

Available to read here


Synopsis: On Polychrome's first visit to Oz, she and Ozma have a moment of bonding as the young Princess is still trying to learn what it means to be a fairy.


Continuity Notes Forthcoming






The Prosecutor of Oz

Available to read here

Author's note: Parts of this story was copied directly from the accounts of the trial in the Royal Library of Oz parts of which were reprinted in Dorothy And The Wizard in Oz.

Synopsis: Forthcoming

Continuity Notes Forthcoming






Oz and the Three Witches

The Royal Timeline of Oz considers this novella deuterocanonical


Synopsis and Continuity Notes

This story, which tells the tale of the Wizard’s History in Oz prior to Dorothy’s arrival, takes place the day following Dorothy’s return to the Great Outside World in Dorothy And The Wizard in Oz, which is in early September. With the truth pearl measuring his honesty, the Wizard explains to Glinda and Ozma how and why he behaved as he did, detailing each of the three visits he pays to Mombi, including the reason he handed baby Ozma to her.


Arrival: The Wizard lands in his O.Z. balloon and is welcomed by the people as the new king sent by the fairies. The old king is gone. The Wizard sets up his court in the old palace of Morrow, located in the Winkie Country, near the Winkie border. This is not the same Morrow as the hunting lodge of Pastoria II, as noted in The Lost King of Oz (located on the Martin & Haff map in the Quadling country), but the original one (called Ozmara in The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 2) set towards the center of Oz, close to the Winkie border, which Pajuka says was a castle that once stood where the Emerald City now is. This era, only briefly sketched here, is shown in the comic-book adaptation of Donald Abbot's How the Wizard Came to Oz.


Oscar befriends the Regent of the Realm, a man named Klestro, whom he appoints Prime Minister, and Galden who he appoints his major domo. Klestro teaches him Oz History. After learning this, the Wizard gets the people to begin building a walled city in the exact center of the land. During this time, he pays the first of three visits to the witch Mombi.


The First Visit to Mombi: The Wizard goes to her hut to intimidate Mombi into believing he's a genuine wizard so that she'll leave him alone. After he does a trick with water and fire, and another (a variation of the nine-tiny piglets, only with mice), they exchange magic items and because she's feeling vulnerable after her recent defeat by the Good Witch of the North, agrees to leave one another alone. This dates this to 1892, which is when Mombi was defeated by the Good Witch of the North (see the notes of The Giant Horse of Oz) and is confirmed by his Third and Final Visit to Mombi. The wizard learns of the prophecy of the baby that will spell the end of the rule of the East and West witches. Mombi tells him the East and West witches will stop at nothing to get the baby.


The Wicked Witch of the West Attacks: While the city is being built, and the Wizard inspects it, the Wicked Witch of the West sends her wolves, and he hides up a tree. She then sends her crows, but he drives them away with a smoke pot, which drew his soldiers to him, and caused the wolves to flee. A few days later, she sent her bees to attack, but again the smoke pot drove them away. These creatures originally belonged to Krizzle Kroo ("The Woozy's Tale" in Oziana 1992), who lost them when Gayelette made them subject to her Silver Whistle, which the Wicked Witch of the West later took from her.


The Wizard studies them in his library and discover that the Silver Shoes can not only transport the East witch, but shoot a magic lightning bolt. Although this appears to be contradicted in the serialized version of How the Wizard Came to Oz, in which the Wicked Witch of the East claims her shoes cannot harm a living creature, the Shoes might be able to destroy property, which is exactly what they do as regards the former capital of Oz.


Construction of the Emerald City: The Wizard notes that there were several emerald mines in the area, which is why the city was made of emeralds. The spectacles were not only to make the white marbled walls appear green, but to help offset the effects of yellow and blue magic, and to aid in detecting a witch who'd snuck in. Ozma notes that she later expanded the palace with a wing off the throne room (which corresponds with what the 1904 edition of the Ozmapolitan said) containing her suite and three guest suites.


Disguise: With the silk from his balloon, and an elixir given him by Mombi on his first visit, the Wizard constructed a costume and disguised himself as a tall woman, which gets the people believing he can transform into other forms. The Wicked Witch of the West journeys west of Morrow to a Winkie Mountain. Using her telescopic eye, she transforms Galden, now the Wizard's personal servant and friend, into a green rabbit, but he transforms back, and the Wizard takes credit for it. The Wizard then has his servants prepare for him a mirrored shield to protect him from the lightning power of the Silver Shoes (perhaps unaware they can't directly harm him).


The Wicked Witch of the East Attacks: The East Witch arrives the next day, and blew open a hole in the nursery tower. Baby Ozma was hid by her nurse in the dungeons, but after the witch began destroying the palace, the Wizard instructed the baby to be taken in secret to the porter's lodge (which is like Pastoria's hunting lodge, also named Morrow, from The Lost King of Oz). The Wizard's mirror does the trick, and he causes the witch to flee for a time. Then he reveals the truth about himself to Galden, who vows to keep his secret.


The Second Visit to Mombi: Mombi tells the Wizard that as the prophecy of the child has no bearing on her, she can hide and protect the child from the East and West witches. She claims that if it is destroyed, all of Oz will be destroyed by the wrath of the fairies. This explains why Mombi is invested in keeping baby Ozma alive and away from the Wicked Witches. Whether the Wizard confirmed this or not is unstated, but the Wizard promises to bring her the child.


At the lodge where he'd secreted the baby, the Wizard discovers that someone was prowling around and had enchanted the nurse into a wolf (who scared off the prowler). Convinced it was the best way to protect the baby, the Wizard makes...


The Third and Final Visit to Mombi: The Wizard hands baby Ozma off to Mombi, who enchants her into a boy. According to the account in The Master Crafters of Oz, Nikidik claims to have been there, and had provided Mombi with the spell she used. This spell, however, was a backup plan. The main spell was the Switcheroo Spell noted in The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1: The Disenchanted Princess of Oz, which according to that story had been cast five years earlier in 1887 (while baby Ozma was still in her nurse's keeping). Afterwards, Mombi leaves her cottage for the one further north. It's a two-day journey to the Gillikin cottage where Tip/Ozma will grow up. The 1892 date is again confirmed by Jack Pumpkinhead of Oz, which states on page 27 that Tip spent "nearly nine years" with Mombi.


Attack of the Wicked Witches: The following day, both witches attacked Morrow, destroying it further, although the Wizard was prepared, having earlier rooted out their spies, and had them attacking each other, while he remained safe, disguised as a bear. Galden, however, was caught in the crossfire and transformed into a ring, which the Wizard wore even when back in the U.S. The Winged Monkeys are sent, but they bring back a dummy the Wizard had rigged instead. This is the third time the Wicked Witch of the West uses the Golden Cap. The first two times are noted in How the Wizard Came to Oz. Since the Witch also uses the Golden Cap in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, the likely explanation is that after using it the third time (in this story), she gave the Golden Cap to her sister, the Wicked Witch of the East, who uses it for her own purposes (perhaps to fend off other enemies and rivals), and when she's used it three times, gives it back to her sister. Thus, the Golden Cap is reset by someone else's use, probably a magical loophole they created, allowing the Wicked Witch of the West another three uses.


The Wizard moves into the newly constructed Emerald City.


Glinda looks at the ring, and disenchants it back to Galden, who Ozma gives a room to. The Wizard is allowed to stay, but will be trained by Glinda in real magic, and is appointed the official Wizard of Oz.







Dorothy and the Seven-Leaf Clover

Synopsis: When Dorothy returns to Oz, Toto gets himself trapped inside a small summerhouse surrounded by an enchanted corn field. With him is a Golden Boy whose been enchanted by the Wicked Witch of the West, who turned his body and heart to gold. A caterpillar informs Dorothy, the Cowardly Lion, Scarecrow and Tin Woodman that the only thing that will break the spell is a seven-leaf clover. On their way to find one, they encounter weasel-foxes who had allegiance to the witch, but now pay it to Dorothy (who orders them far away). They also meet a cow who leads them to the clover. They disenchant the boy, who is a Popcorn Boy, and discover that the caterpillar has turned into a Corn Silk girl.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Dorothy makes a signal to Ozma on Saturday morning, following the instructions Ozma gave her at the end of Ozma of Oz, instructions which were changed at the end of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz to every day at 4:00. It may be that Dorothy had Ozma revert to the "every Saturday morning" instructions due to being busy on the farm after school. Also, given the shock that her two disappearances in the latter gave Henry and Em, perhaps Dorothy is showing concern for their feelings, and willing to slip away only when she won't noticed. Dorothy says to Toto that "it's awhile since we've been here in Oz."







Dorothy and Old King Crow

Synopsis: After King Crow enchants the Scarecrow with a spell, Dorothy seeks for a way to help, and agrees to a spelling contest, which the crow believes he will easily win. After giving her the word bamboozlement to spell, Dorothy is certain she will lose, but a Spelling Bee comes to her aid.


Continuity Notes

Bees that Spell: This Spelling Bee appears to be the inspiration for the character in Toto and the Cats of Oz, though there is no recognition in the latter tale of Dorothy and her friends in that story.


Ozma's Instructions: For the first time, Dorothy follows the instructions Ozma gives her in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, when Ozma said she'd check in on her every day at 4:00 (which may indicate Dorothy's feeling freer to go back to Oz more often.






Mr. Tinker in Oz

Synopsis: Mr. Tinker, Tik-Tok's famous inventor (who went to live in the moon) ends up by mistake in Kansas, where he picks up Dorothy, and together heads to Oz believing that Tik-Tok's warranty has expired.


After Tinker temporarily shrinks her as a means of transporting her to Oz, the two get separated, and Dorothy ends up in the Winkie country of Oz, where she meets the Widdlebits, who are essentially tiny talking babies. They're under attack from ants, but one of Tinker's inventions, Julius Quickscissors, ends up saving them. Reunited with Tinker, they're restored to normal size, but they must cross the bottomless swamp to get to the Emerald City.


There they meet Princess Astoria, the last of seven sisters who are all queens except her. When she went to petition the Wizard years earlier to help make her a queen, she lost her companion to the Wumpguppies in the Bottomless Swamp. So hideous are they that any who looks upon them whilst attempt to cross the bridge faints and falls into the pit. Astoria now warns others of the dangers. Tinker uses a mirror to help cross the bridge and urges the others to follow with closed eyes. Astoria's lullaby helps put the Wumpguppies to sleep.


In the Emerald City, everybody suffers from a mysterious bout of depression. Also, Tik-Tok reveals that Tinker was off by nine hundred and twenty-four years, indicating that Tik-Tok was first manufactured in 1879.


Ozma charges Tinker to invent something that will help them, but Tinker feels that he's lost his abilities. Nevertheless, he creates a placebo, but it's the laughter of the Widdlebits upon seeing Tik-Tok and the Scarecrow that restores the Ozites to psychological health.


Princess Astoria is made Empress of the Nursery, and the Widdlebits become residents of the Emerald City.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Due to the weather, this appears to take place in the late fall or winter. This is the one instance in which time is altered so that Dorothy is able to appear back in the Kansas at the same moment in which she left. This is attributed to Tinker's watch. As the Wizard is not present in the company, and the story must take place after Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, it seems likely that the Wizard is training with Glinda during Dorothy's brief trip to the Emerald City. Ozma appoints Tinker "First and Only Inventor of Oz," which underscores the idea that this take place before the Wizard develops a penchant for inventions.


Mr. Tinker: This story gives Mr. Tinker a complete name, Ezra P. Tinker, and it's been speculated by Nathan DeHoff on his blog that the P stands for Pascal, particularly since his partner Smith is named Rejano Edison Smith in the short Oziana 1987 story "Button-Bright and the Knit-Wits of Oz." Mr. Tinker doesn't appear again in any other story until Glenn Ingersoll's The Lost Queen of Oz, in which he's back on the moon, which indicates that his stay in Oz was a short one.


Temporal Magic: This is a rare instance in which time is altered so that Dorothy is able to appear back in the Kansas at the same moment in which she left, a power attributed to Tinker's watch. This would indicate a magical device, as opposed to a purely mechanical one. Glinda offers to use temporal magic for Cory in Cory in Oz.






Dorothy and the Magic Belt

Synopsis: As Dorothy explains to her aunt and uncle how Ozma looks in on her every Saturday morning in the Magic Picture to see if she makes a certain sign that means she wants to come visit her in Oz, Dorothy is whisked away, and she appears in the Emerald Palace before Ozma, the Cowardly Lion, Hungry Tiger, Billina, Professor Wogglebug and Tik-Tok. Billina's had 114 new chicks since she was last there. Dorothy worries about missing school, but the professor ensures her that a few classes with him and she'll be ahead of most. Dorothy composes a note for her aunt and uncle, which Ozma sends by means of the Magic Belt, after which she prepares a banquet to celebrate.


In a cave in the Gillikin Country, Nikidik the Younger complains to his father Dr. Nikidik about his decision to stop practicing magic since the decree forbidding it came to pass. His father insists that he won't cross Glinda and that he'll grow turnips instead. The youthful Nik storms out, determined to become a wizard like his father and ancestors before him. He locates a magic book and some powders that were saved from his father's bonfire. One is an Aging Powder, the other a Youthing Powder. With that he begins his trek to the Emerald City.


Early the next morning, Dorothy goes for a ride with the Sawhorse to the Munchkin Country. Nikidik the Younger, meanwhile, reaches the Emerald City, where he uses the Youthing Powder to make the Guardian of the Gates and Soldier with the Green Whiskers little boys. He follows this up with the Cowardly Lion, Hungry Tiger, Wogglebug and Ozma, who turns back into Tip! Nik then takes the Magic Belt and wishes himself back in the Gillikin Mountain, where his home is.


Dorothy and the Sawhorse return to the palace to find babies everywhere. Also, Tik-Tok is acting strange, repeating the word kidikin over and over. They then ride off to the Tin Woodman's castle to get his and the Scarecrow's help. They figure out that Tik-Tok was saying Nikidik's name backwards. The Tin Woodman believes Dr. Nikidik has stopped practicing magic, but they go see Jack Pumpkinhead who informs them that Dr. Nikidik lived in a cave in the Gillikin Mountains not far from Mombi's home. Sending the Sawhorse to Glinda's, they head there.


The next morning, they're surprised to find a purple crystal palace at the foot of the mountains that hadn't been there before. After Nik had created it with the Magic Belt, his father had fled into the surrounding woods, fearing the wrath of Glinda. With the Belt, now hidden under his tunic, Nik summons courtiers, but he soon grows bored. His attempts at magic apart from the Belt fail, and he determines to learn magic from Mombi, and summons her, along with the cow she was milking. She is none too pleased at this, so he throws Youthing Powder at her, turning her about his age. He then explains that he'd like to trade magical secrets with her. She suggests they first demonstrate their powers, and she turns her cow into a statue. Nik tries the same spell, and turns a butterfly into quartz. Nik then makes up some words and secretly uses the Belt to turn a mouse into gold. Mombi tries it on a ladybug and he uses the Belt to make it come to pass. Mombi feigns to go along with him and requests to retire. Later that night, she attempts his "spell" again, and it fails to work, as she'd suspected.


The next day, Dorothy and her party arrive at the palace to confront Nik, demanding the return of the Magic Belt. With that, Mombi learns the truth of his powers and determines to steal the Belt from him. She uses a spell, but the Belt protects its wearer, as she discovers. So, she enchants the cow to attack him. After tripping over Jack's body, Nik takes out the Youthing Powder and tosses it, getting it on the cow, Mombi and himself. As the three turn into babies, Dorothy grabs the Belt. Glinda then arrives on the Sawhorse. She tells Dorothy to use the Belt to summon Dr. Nikidik. After learning what's transpired, he apologizes, explaining that he and his son have been unhappy since the work their family had done for centuries was taken away from them. Glinda then suggests he take up fireworks instead. He concedes and suggests she keep the children young so that he can raise them both. Giving Glinda the Aging Powder, he returns to his cave home.


Dorothy undoes everything Nik had done with the Magic Belt, including the palace, and returns to the Emerald City, where with the Magic Belt, she restores everyone to their proper age and memories. Tik-Tok is given a medal. Days later, Dorothy returns home again.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Story takes place on Saturday morning in the fall some time after Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz and The Emerald City of Oz, when Dorothy is still living in Kansas. As the Wizard is not present in the capital, it seems likely that it's prior to The Road to Oz, at a time when he's training with Glinda. Dorothy tells her aunt and uncle that Ozma checks in on her every Saturday morning. This must be in addition to the fact that she also checks in on her every day at 4:00, or the instructions reverted back at some point.


Dorothy's Education: This represents the start of Dorothy's education with Professor Wogglebug in his college. Eureka in Oz and The Emerald City Mirror confirm that Dorothy learns under at his school. It's uncertain, however, if Dorothy completes her education at this early date, or at some time later.


Dr. Nikidik: Dr. Nikidik personality in this story is feigned in order to keep Glinda off his radar while he raises his son and attempts to restore Enilrul (The Witch Queen of Oz and The Master Crafters of Oz.) For this reason, he's disdainful of his son's attempts to become a magician, knowing it will only draw attention to his plans. It is unknown who the mother of Nikidik the Younger is. Nik returns in the sequel Dagmar in Oz.


Mombi: Mombi is transformed into an infant at the story's end by Youthing Powder. This event is dealt with in this story's sequel Dagmar in Oz.


Youthing Powder: This unusual powder works by reversing time for the individual, so that their memories reverse along with their ages, and they do not remember anything past the age they become. This is not a permanent effect, however, and if they are magically reverted back to their original age, such as with the Aging Powder, their memories are restored. This must be a late invention of Dr. Nikidik, as he likely would have traded it to Dr. Pipt, whose wife was interested in becoming younger. It appears that Ozma's reversal into Tip did not affect Tippetarius, who at this time is with Zim (The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1).







The Road to Oz

Baum's fifth Oz book of the Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!


Synopsis: On her Kansas farm, Dorothy meets the Shaggy Man, and in attempting to help him get to the road to Butterfield (which is not a known town in Kansas today, though it does exist in several surrounding states), ends up getting lost with him and Toto when the path becomes magical and takes them to the Nonestican continent.


The travelers end up on the south shore of the continent, west of Burzee (east of Boboland). The Shaggy Man isn't concerned about being lost, as he has a magical Love Magnet, which makes all who meet him love him (the love magnet, like the Magic Umbrella and the Water of Life, is one of the few magical devices that works in the Outside World). They next meet a young Button-Bright (who Baum indicates is about six, though he speaks as if he's far younger), the Foxes of Foxville, and their King Dox, who is so enamored of Button-Bright he transforms his head into a fox's. They next meet Polychrome, the daughter of the Rainbow, who is lost after falling off the bow of her father's rainbow.


Together, they travel to Dunkiton, a realm of sapient donkeys who are so enamored of the Shaggy Man that they give him a donkey's head. Traveling northwards, they end up being corralled by the evil Scoodlers who can throw their heads as weapons, and who want to turn them into soup. After the Shaggy Man bats all of their heads down a deep crevice, they make their way to the edge of the Deadly Desert. The Shaggy Man summons Johnny Dooit, who instantly appears and makes them a sandboat which will cross the desert.


At last in Oz, they wish to make their way to the Truth Pond to rid themselves of their animal heads. Following this, they attend a grand party in the Emerald City to celebrate Ozma's birthday. The Wizard uses his magic to send everybody home.


Continuity Notes


The Blue Bear Rug: The Blue Bear Rug appears later in the story, in the procession for Ozma's birthday, leading before Ozma herself He died choking on a bone likely before Oz became a deathless land. As to how he's unable to speak (the story says he lacks for breath, but so do all of the creatures brought to life by the Powder of Life), this is a puzzle. But he appears again in The Magic Bowls of Oz, in which Button-Bright makes for him a skeleton and inserts a bellows so he can move about and talk. In later stories, such as The Astonishing Tale of the Gump of Oz, he can speak.


Button-Bright: The explanation of how Button-Bright got to where they found him is explained in The Magic Umbrella of Oz and Outsiders from Oz. Although that story indicates that he was four at the time of these events, Baum's chronology necessitates that he was actually six (a correction that will be made in a future edition).


Johnny Dooit: There is some curiosity about who or what Johnny Dooit is, but he doesn't make another appearance in the original series. He returns in The Witch Queen of Oz and Do It For Oz.


Dr. Pipt: The Tin Woodman tells the tale of Dyna, a relative of the Crooked Sorcerer who made the Powder of Life. This is later revealed to be Dr. Pipt, not Dr. Nikidik, although the former used the name of the latter (and vice versa). It's also revealed that Dyna lied about her Pipt falling down a precipice. For more on the two Crooked Sorcerers, see the Appendix.


Polychrome: The History of Polychrome and her family is detailed in the Oziana #37 story, "As the Rainbow Follows the Rain."


The Shaggy Man: The History of the Shaggy Man is detailed in the short story "From Gold Hill to Butterfield" and Queen Ann in Oz, where it's revealed that his name actually is Shaggy Man, Shagrick Mann.


The Scoodlers: This race never again appears in the original series, though there is some question as to whether they're related to Mifkits (and Mifkets). They appear again in The Magic Carpet of Oz and Dagmar in Oz.


Dating: This story takes place from August 15th to August 21st, 1903, the day of Ozma's birthday. See the Day-to-Day Chronology for more details. The travelers visit the Pumpkin home of Jack Pumpkinhead, and Dorothy notes his graveyard of heads: each of the three buried heads of Jack Pumpkinhead are dated by month, and reveal chronological information that reveals Baum's indication as to when his stories take place. The first head was acquired in late October 1901, when Tip first brought Jack to life in The Marvelous Land of Oz. A short time after the end of that story, Jack expressed his concern to Ozma about his head spoiling, and since he notes that it is not pumpkin season, no ripe pumpkins are available. Jack and Ozma find a place to plant a pumpkin patch (see "A Pumpkin Patch in Oz"). Jack doesn't have to worry, as his head doesn't spoil until long after the pumpkins are ripe (which takes, on average, four months). In fact, due to the Powder of Life, his heads last longer than a normal pumpkin would. The first head lasts six months, noted by the time Ozma carves a new one, and Jack buries the old one on April 9, 1902. The next head also lasts six months to October 2, 1902. His third head (Jack says the seeds were not so good in this head) only lasts near to four months and is buried on January 24th, 1903. Since this is now August 1903, it would date his current head to six months old. It also establishes a year and ten months between The Marvelous Land of Oz and The Road to Oz.


Bubbles: Ozma brings all of her guests from their respective homes to Oz by means of the Magic Belt, and sends them home by means of the Wizard's magic bubbles (which are steered by Santa to their correct destinations). In The Gardener's Boy of Oz, it's explained that "by pressing three fingers lightly to one side or other of the bubble, the wayfarer could temporarily change direction and take small sidetrips. In order to descend at last, the traveler had only to insert a special pin into the bubble and the air would come out gradually, bringing bubble and rider safely to the ground. The bubbles were toughened so that nothing except the special pin could puncture them, but they were also somewhat porous so that their occupants always had fresh air to breathe."


Crossovers: This is Baum's big crossover book, with several personalities from other fantasy works of his entering Oz to celebrate Ozma's birthday. Among these are several characters rarely, or not at all, seen outside their respective books:


  1. King John Dough, Chick the Cherub and Para Bruin the Rubber Bear from John Dough and the Cherub.

  2. Santa Claus, along with numerous ryls and knooks, from The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus. There is a change in the conception of the knooks, who in ancient times, according to The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, used to care for the animals, and now care for the trees of the forest. This change was also seen in several of Baum's short fantasy stories, particularly as the care for animals went to the animal fairies.

  3. The Queen of Merryland and the Candy Man of Merryland, from Dot and Tot of Merryland.

  4. The Braided Man from Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz.

  5. The Royal Family of Ev from Ozma of Oz.

  6. Queen Zixi of Ix, King Bud and Princess Fluff of Noland, from Queen Zixi of Ix.

  7. The Good Witch of the North from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.

  8. The Queen of the Field Mice (shown in illustration) from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.

  9. The vassal kings of Oz are also at the celebration, including the unnamed kings of the Munchkins, Quadlings and Gillikins. (See the notes for Ozma of Oz for the issue with the King of the Munchkins).


Also, King Dox from Fox Town and King Kickabray from Dunkiton are present.


Socio-Economic Culture of Oz

 The Road to Oz defines Oz as 1) egalitarian and 2) treating animals with the same consideration as humans, 3) deathless, but 4) with the possibility of capital punishment. The Emerald City of Oz further underscores and deepens these values, except for the last aspect of capitol punishment, which becomes one of rehabilitation and strictly non-violent solutions to crime and punishment.


1. The Tin Woodman calls the use of money "vulgar" and explains that there is no poverty or wealth in Oz. That Oz does not use money is also established in the Queer Visitors strips, but was probably not abolished until 1903. People do for each other out of the goodness of their hearts. “If we used money to buy things with, instead of love and kindness and the desire to please one another, then we should be no better than the rest of the world,” declared the Tin Woodman. “Fortunately money is not known in the Land of Oz at all.  We have no rich, and no poor; for what one wishes the others all try to give him, in order to make him happy, and no one in all Oz cares to have more than he can use.”


2. Dorothy explains on page 166 that, "in Oz all animals were treated with as much consideration as the people -- 'if they behave themselves.'" Note that there's no distinction between a talking and non-talking variety (and we don't ever see the latter), but if there is, being treated with "as much consideration as people" still applies to "all animals." 


3. It's repeated several times (and in The Emerald City of Oz) that there is no death in Oz, but that one can be destroyed, and yet there appear to be exceptions to that rule.


4. The Tin Woodman states on page 163 that "although if one is bad, he may be condemned and killed by the good citizens." This is the same implied threat that goes for animals. Everyone, human and animal, has to behave. This is later eliminated by Ozma, who not only employs the kind-hearted Tollydiggle as jailor, but demands non-violent solutions to criminal behavior.


Truth Pond: This is the first mention of the Truth Pond in the Winkie Country, though Baum will use it again more extensively in The Lost Princess of Oz. The Truth Pond was created by the Fairy Queen Lurline centuries ago (see The Law of Oz and Other Stories, where it plays a significant role), "The Final Fate of the Frogman," and The Gardener's Boy of Oz. Anyone who drinks of it will tell the truth, but its effects wear off. Anyone who swims in the Pond is compelled to speak the truth, else their ears turn green (The Forbidden Fountain of Oz). Forthcoming stories dealing with the Truth Pond include, "The Orange Ogres in Oz," "The Felicitous Frogman and the Fabulous Freaks of Oz" and "Peer Counseling."


Wizard: Oscar Diggs here displays his first use of real magic, as taught to him by Glinda, in one of the canonical books.


A Short Short Oz Story:

This poetic tribute to L. Frank’s first grandson was inscribed in presentation copies of The Road to Oz. It was first reprinted in the Baum Bugle Vol.8, #3; 12/64 IWOOC.


The Buckethead edition pictured here has illustrations by Marcus Mebes.







Tales of the Crocheted Cat

The Crocheted Cat: On Christmas Eve, the poor Tucker family complete work on the presents they made for their two children, Cal and Sarah. One is a crocheted cat with a very long tail, the other a picture storybook. After the parents go to sleep, the kids sneak down to see their presents, but they get a real surprise when the crocheted cat grows larger and comes to life. Introducing himself as Theobald (pronounced Tibbald), he explains that if they wake their parents he'll turn back into a toy, and that the reason he was brought to life was to help them understand Christmas and the meaning of love. The children have been overly concerned about their father losing their job and the fact that they have little money to buy presents or even a proper tree. To help them see there's a better way, he offers to take them to see the Wiseman in the Forest of Throomb, which is a place represented in the book their father drew for them. He warns them there's a witch, but that if they don't let themselves get afraid or mixed up by her, she'll have no power over them.


Having them concentrate on the illustration in the book, Cal and Sarah visualize themselves in the Forest of Throomb, but before they can make it to the Wiseman's cottage, the witch emerges from her castle on her golden broom, decked out in gold, and with a band of warriors. They surround the children, as she offers them riches if they'll bring her with them to the world outside, but the crocheted cat warns them not to give into her temptations. Angry, she uses her wand to make the cat disappear, and resumes her seduction, claiming their father won't need to work with all the wealth she'll bestow on them. Upset about what happened to Theobald and anxious that they can't return to their world on their own, they call out for help from the Wiseman. He emerges from his cottage, a short old man with a wizard's peaked hat and robe, and disperses her warriors with the light of his torch. He does the same to the witch who tries to defy him, but the light terrifies her as she departs to hide behind a tree.


The Wiseman explains that the price for her offer is to become someone who loves things more than people. Theobald, he explains, is alive because of the love their family has for each other. He restores the cat with his torch and explains that the gifts they made their parents are also magic, as they impart love and joy as well, and that their father will have a job in the future because he's a good man and good worker. As the original Christmas present is still with them, all they need is faithful trust. Still, Sarah is concerned that their Christmas is so shabby, so he suggests they make some things, and together they hold hands to return through to their living room by visualizing it, something the witch can't do as she's never been there. But she sneaks into the circle, so the Wiseman turns the light of his torch on her and she flies terrified into the sky.


Back on the other side, the Wiseman and Theobald help them do arts and crafts together, and decorate the living room, bringing new life and joy to it, and in the morning when their parents wake up, they find their children asleep, and are astounded to see all the work they did overnight. The Wiseman and live Theobald return to the cottage in the forest, leaving behind the crocheted version and a happy family.


The Case of the Kidnapped Kangaroo: In February, Cal and Sarah wonder if they'd dreamt the whole thing on Christmas Eve, as their parents suggested, so they decide to open up the book again, and there they see Theobald in the Forest of Throomb. He comes through and explains he was waiting for a week for them to open it, as the Golden Witch is up to mischief in the Wilderness of Wambu, which is a land represented by another picture in the book, which the witch broke into when using her magic to escape the Wiseman's light. So opening the book to that page, Theobald goes into it. The Crocheted Cat soon returns with a crocheted kangaroo named Mathilda, and they close the book before the pursuing witch can follow them.  Cal and Sarah's mother had also made her, but has kept her in a drawer until a birthday or Easter. Mathilda is grief-stricken, however, because her baby Jo had been abducted by the witch and hidden in her magic castle. While Theobald goes back to the Forest of Throomb to consult the Wiseman, Mathilda explains how after crowning herself Queen and raising her castle, the witch swooped down on them while they were drinking and seized her baby from her.


Theobald returns with a giant purple crocheted elephant named Asterick and a tall giraffe named Rafferty, which the Wiseman had pulled from their mother's imagination to see the kinds of animals she'd be making in the future. Though he's unable to leave the Forest of Throomb due to the trouble a former servant of the witch, the magician Mugre, is causing, he imparts each of the children a magical torch that lights a beam based on their thoughts and focus.


Turning to the page in which lies the picture of the Wilderness of Wambu, they visualize themselves there and arrive before the wall of the witch's castle. But the Golden Witch meets them first and tells them that she'll give baby Jo back to Mathilda in exchange for the picture book, otherwise she'll destroy him and take the book anyway. When she flies off, Asterick the elephant rams against the wall to try and knock it down, but he only bounces back. Sarah, however, finds that the light from their torches pass through the wall. So, Rafferty gets the idea that if they focus a large enough beam on the wall, it will allow them to pass through, and it works.


They next come across an invisible wall, but the torch trick doesn't work on it. Asterick realizes, though, that it's like the picture in the book, and if they visualize themselves closer to the castle, they'll get there. His plan works and they arrive in front of the door. But the witch appears again, and this time attempts to make the animals turn back into lifeless toys with her wand, and she traps Asterick within its power. Cal then remembers the power of their torches, and he and Sarah aim it at Asterick, which dispels her power. When they turn it on the witch, she fleets momentarily, but then returns and uses her wand to conjure up a horde of living horrors, skeletons, ghosts, goblins and other unspeakable terrors!


In order to break the grip of fear over the children, Theobald begins dancing with a skeleton. Asterick and Rafferty comprehend what he's doing and begin dancing with other creatures as well. This does the job, and soon Cal, Sarah and the army of horrors are dancing away. Infuriated at this turn of events, the witch departs her castle, urging her minions to attack. Mathilda takes advantage to sneak into the castle and take back her baby. When she reemerges, however, the witch begins chanting a spell of confusion to take back control, but the kangaroo urges everyone to shout aloud the truth and keep doing so. It works, even for the horde, and Cal and Sarah, remembering their torches, shine their lights full on the witch, driving her inside her castle until the lights prove so strong that the castle itself vanishes and the witch is forced to flee into the air. A skeleton approaches, telling them they've freed them from the power of the witch, and will go on to do no harm. At that, they begin to fade into a kind of fourth dimension. Then, saying goodbye to their new and old friends, Cal and Sarah return to their world.


The Enchanted Grotto: When their mother makes them a new crocheted dolphin, Cal and Sarah wait for it to come alive, but when it doesn't they grow puzzled, and soon open their father's book and consult Theobald, living in the Forest of Throomb, to see what the matter is. He tells them the live dolphin is expected in the ocean on the shore of Farhold Island, but that the spell is yet incomplete. He explains that all the crocheted animals who came to life were love gifts, but this one is only half so; it's one-sided because Cal and Sarah have become neglectful of their parents and started taking things for granted. The kids ask if they start doing good deeds, will the magic return and bring the dolphin to life, but Theobald explains that it doesn't work that way. If it's not genuine love, and they're doing it for a reward, then it's not love. Cal and Sarah finally get the point and go off to mend their ways.


Later, Theobald meets with them again, and tells them there might be some danger in bringing the dolphin to life. They must throw the dolphin into the bottomless pool in the Enchanted Grotto, but they must first get through the labyrinth without getting lost or losing their temper, because if they do, they'll turn into statues!


On their way through the Enchanted Grotto, they use a ball of twine to ensure they don't get lost, but when Cal temporarily loses it, Sarah gets mad and stamps her foot, causing it to turn to crystal. Cal goes back to retrieve the string, and bumping his head, he loses his temper too, and his fingers turn to crystal. Yet the children determine to press forward and be more careful, particularly when they note the statues of those turned entirely to stone.


As they proceed forward, a teddy bear tries to knock them down and make them angry so they turn to stone, but Theobald explains that they're not there to steal the valuable golden sands (which glow in the dark and is the reason the others came) but to bring the dolphin to life. Teddy Bear is surprised by this, as children had mistreated and abandoned him. The Enchanter brought him to life, dipping him in the bottomless pool, and making him the guardian of the grotto while he's away. He doesn't know when the Enchanter is coming back, but says they can go about bringing the dolphin to life.


The children soon find out that putting their enchanted limbs in the pool restores them, and dropping the crocheted dolphin in it brings him to life. He tells them his name is Adolphe, and that as he is a water creature he must stay in the open sea near Farhold Island, but his crocheted version will go back with them to their home. They promise to come visit him some time, and he welcomes it.


Continuity Notes

Dating: The months of each story are explicit in the text, though no year is indicated. However, in The Crocheted Cat in Oz, which takes place a year later, the date indicated is during the earliest years of Ozma's reign.


Time: Theobald is able to stop time in the real world while the kids have adventures in the fantasy one. This is different from trips to Oz, where time runs coterminously, and reflects the possibility that the realms represented within the bookthe Forest of Throomb, the Wilderness of Wambu, the Enchanted Grotto and Farhold Islandare unconnected to Nonestica and operate along different principles. Yet, in The Crocheted Cat in Oz, the Wiseman of Throomb knows of Oz and the Wizard, and is able to travel there. Also, time is held back by Mr. Tinker's watch in Mr. Tinker in Oz, which demonstrates the possibility that this kind of time magic, though rare, is possible, and that these fairylands may be in the same universe.



Farhold Island

History: This story, not published until 1994, is a direct sequel to Tales of the Crocheted Cat, and a direct predecessor to The Crocheted Cat in Oz.


Synopsis: In November, almost a year after the Crocheted Cat was brought to life, Sarah and Cal decide to visit Farhold Island to see how the crocheted dolphin Adolph has fared. They open their father's book to the image of Farhold Island, visualize themselves there, and arrive on the beach. Calling out to Adolph, he soon arrives and invites them for a ride on his back. Like a dolphin he never gets soggy, but he also never has to eat. He swims towards three inlets, where Cal climbs a coconut tree. But when pirates arrive and capture the children, Adolph tows away the boat with their treasure chest on it, causing the pirates to leave the kids to go after it. Determining his sister should get help from Theobald and the Wiseman, Cal sends her off, and she visualizes herself back at the house, where she summons Theobald.

Adolph hides the boat in a cave and goes back for Cal, but too late as the pirates have him aboard their larger ship, the Vixen. Adolph goes off to summon Conrad the Seahorse, a creature crocheted the prior week, to watch out for Sarah's return while he follows the pirate ship. Cal is, meanwhile, thrown into a small compartment and later brought before Captain Grimbalt, who ties a cannonball around his neck and puts him on a gangplank. But seeing Adolph, he jumps off and takes the rope off his neck. Cal is introduced to Conrad who tells Adolph they need to trick the pirates off the island so that Sarah and Theobald can arrive. This he does, leading the pirates away as he doubles back and brings everyone to the cave with the treasure. They discover that the cave has a hidden opening in the back that leads to the Enchanted Wood, guarded by the Golden Falcon.

In the morning, they bury the treasure chest under the water. Conrad and Adolph warn the children not to eat any of the Enchanter's fruit, as they're dangerous, but when Theobald leads the siblings into the middle of the wood, Cal becomes tempted by a luscious fruit tree where grow the dream quinces. When one falls before him, he gives in and eats it, causing him to turn purple and fall into an enchanted sleep. One fruit falls before Sarah, as well, but Theobald knocks it away. He moves her away from the tree, and as neither can move Cal, they're forced to go in search of the Golden Falcon.

The next morning, they explore the miles-wide Enchanted Wood, and decide to build a fire, hoping it will draw the Falcon. That evening he arrives, and Theobald explains that the pirates are preventing them from leaving. The bird, however, warns them of the Enchanter, and explains that although he drove the pirates away years ago, he has no power over the sea, just the earth, and it is only him who can restore Cal, and the Falcon cannot help until he knows his master's wishes.

The next day, they make the long journey back to the beach, and at nightfall, sneak back to the lagoon where they visualize Sarah's playroom. Adolph makes the journey with them and Sarah gets him crutches so he can walk about. Opening the book to the Forest of Throomb, they go to the Wiseman's cottage and meet the Wiseman's new apprentice Lone Badger, a Sioux descendent of Black Elk, who had long ago taught the Wiseman. They also meet the friendly black poodle Hannibal. Unfortunately, the Wiseman cannot intrude on the Enchanter's territory, and Cal is enslaved both to him and to the tree. Badger's magic might be able to help, and he can also cast a storm spell to rid them of the pirates. But they'll have to seek out the Enchanter to restore Cal, for which they may have to offer him something from the treasure chest. Even still, Cal might have to resist the tree's temptations or be doubly enchanted.

In the morning, the Wiseman gives Sarah a torch, magic nose plugs (to breathe underwater) and magic monocles to help on the way, and tells her they'll most likely find in the treasure chest a ring called the Truth Crystal. It clouds over when someone tells a lie and shows the true shape of anything that's been transformed or disguised. She must not offer this to the Enchanter unless he's refused all other bargains. Returning to Farhold Island, the young Native American boy performs the storm spell, which causes the pirates to set sail. With the Wiseman's torch, they walk into the Enchanted Wood once more, though Theobald forbids Lone Badger from approaching the tree with the dream quinces. Badger is able to help waken Cal, though the boy remains purple. Returning to the shore, Theobald and Adolph go to the bottomless pool and descend into it, emerging in the cave of the Enchanter. Teddy Bear, the guardian, is happy to see them, but warns them that although he's not wicked, the Enchanter does not give up power.

Theobald and Adolph enter his chamber and bring him greetings from the Wiseman of Throomb. Although he knows of the Wiseman, he is not pleased to see them and coldly tells them they're trespassers and intruders. He also threatens that he could easily take away their lives. Theobald counters that they're castaways, forced there by the pirates. The Enchanter looks at his magic quartz crystal and sees that Cal has been awakened and placed beyond his power on the beach. So, he determines that he'll trade them the antidote for Cal in exchange for the ink of the giant squid. They are also never to return to his enchanted pool, and must help his guardians drive the pirates away.

Teddy Bear is not happy with the exchange, and Theobald invites him to join them, but the Bear is loyal and doesn't trust children. Returning to the beach, the crocheted animals and their companions retrieve the hidden treasure chest and find the Truth Crystal, a ring which shrinks to fit on Sarah's finger. The Cat warns her to keep it hidden from the Enchanter. The group descend into the water and approach the squid's lair, where Badger magically sends cold water at him, while Sarah shines her torch. This causes the squid to get scared and shoot out a cloud of ink, which Cal funnels into a flask. But the ink disrupts the magic of the crocheted animals, and Cal and Sarah are forced to help Theobald and Adolph, who can no longer swim. Conrad, who avoided the ink, swims off to ask the help of flesh dolphins, who return to help guide the travelers through the corals back to the island. As Adolph worries he'll never be able to swim again, the flesh dolphins depart to find an ancient magician dolphin who lives nearby. The Golden Falcon appears to take the ink, but they tell him they'll only hand it to the Enchanter, so the bird flies off to retrieve him.

In the morning, the flesh dolphins return with an antidote for Adolph and Theobald. Sarah's ring confirms that it works. After sundown, the Falcon returns with a message from the Enchanter. Theobald leads the children to his cave where they exchange the squid ink for the formula to disenchant Cal. The Enchanter tells them the Falcon and Teddy Bear will appear in other forms on the morrow to help them dispel the pirates.

The next day, Sarah uses the ring to discover that the Enchanter's potion only restored Cal's color, but not the enchantment itself, without which Cal cannot return home. So, Cal is forced to face the tree again. The temptation proves almost too much, but he resists, and when he returns everyone rejoices that he's free at last.

A giant grizzly bear arrives, and with the magic monocle Sarah sees that it's Teddy. A Golden Dragon also arrives, but it's revealed to be the Golden Falcon. Now, because of the squid ink, the Enchanter has power over water, and the two creatures terrify the pirates who finally flee Farhold Island. Teddy confesses his master's treachery, as he wants the magic ring, but they inform him that Cal broke the spell on his own. Teddy congratulates him and says he's now a man. Saying goodbye to Teddy, Adolph, Conrad and the flesh dolphins, Badger promises to return as the Wiseman will now have to keep an eye on the Enchanter to ensure he doesn't turn evil, something Adolph will also watch out for. Sarah gives the magic ring and implements to Badger, knowing she cannot bring it into her own world, lest they be destroyed. As they prepare to depart, the Golden Dragon descends down to snatch up Cal (as he was instructed), but they disappear and Teddy laughs all the way to the Enchanted Grotto.

Continuity Notes

Crocheted Animals: This story brings the total number of crocheted animals to a close. There is Theobald the Crocheted Cat (first of the bunch), who lives with the Wiseman in the Forest of Throomb, Mathilda and her baby Joey, who are crocheted kangaroos that live in the Wildnerness of Wambu with Asterick the crocheted elephant and Rafferty the crocheted giraffe; Adolph (originally spelled Adolphe) the crocheted dolphin and Conrad the crocheted seahorse live in the seas of Farhold Island. Additionally, the Enchanter has brought a stuffed bear to life called simply Teddy Bear.


Dating: story takes place of the course of a week in November, though little time passes in the outside world. As this story takes place in the year prior to The Crocheted Cat in Oz, see that entry for the year.

Enchanter: It is unknown what later becomes of the Enchanter, as the Wiseman was concerned that his lust for power might turn him to evil. He and Adolph are keeping an eye on him.

Fairylands: As with its predecessor, Tales of the Crocheted Cat, Farhold Island is part of the same fairyland as the Wilderness of Wambu and the Forest of Throomb, all of which are represented in the book illustrated by Cal and Sarah's father. As is revealed in The Crocheted Cat in Oz, the Wiseman knows of Oz and its Wizard, which indicates that they are neighboring fairylands, though whether on the same Nonestican hemisphere or another fairyland entirely is not known. In Throomb, at this time, animals can't speak.



The Crocheted Cat in Oz

History: This is the final story of Hugh Pendexter III's "Tales of the Crocheted Cat" series, which feature characters who originally appeared in two original non-Oz fantasy adventures, Tales of the Crocheted Cat (1976) and its sequel, Farhold Island (1994), both illustrated by Patricia Ambrose, which places those stories in the larger Ozian mythos.


Synopsis: After the Wiseman of Throomb instructs his apprentice Lone Badger to perform a fog bank spell in the morning, his companion Theobald the Crocheted Cat spots the Wizard of Oz and Dorothy welcoming guests to Ozma's birthday party in the crystal ball. The Wiseman hadn't seen the Wizard since the time he became a genuine wizard. The crystal globe had been set to keep an eye on the Golden Witch, and they soon spot her hiding in the gardens, and realize she somehow escaped the Wilderness of Wambu into Oz. As a magic worker, the Wiseman cannot intrude into Oz without permission, but he permits Theobald and Badger to go warn Ozma and capture her. That night, Theobald watches her sneak into the palace and transform into a grasshopper.


In the morning, Badger decides to surprise the Wiseman by performing the fog bank spell indoors, but he instead winds up summoning the Daemon of Fog! The Wiseman placates the Daemon, telling him he's the wisest of the Lords of Enchantment, and that they summoned him for his advice on their troubles with the Golden Witch. The Daemon suggests they go to Oz, and places a patch on Theobad's chest, which he can use to summon him. After he departs, the Wiseman scolds Badger for tinkering with a spell, as he could have summoned up a demon instead of a daemon, and warns him he'll take away his magic completely if he does anything as foolish as that again.


With supplies, magical and mundane, and a voice box to keep in touch, Badger and Theobald use the crystal globe to visualize the inside of Ozma's palace, but just as they're transporting, the poodle Hannibal places his paws on them, and the three of them appear in the palace, where the dog is surprised to find he can speak. Badger spots the grasshopper (that is the witch), but when he tries to catch her she transforms into a golden crow, and turns Badger into a badger (with purple stripes). She flies off to another room, where all of Ozma's presents are being stored for her impending birthday celebration. After searching through them, she settles on one and takes it. With the Wiseman's spyglass they see the Witch traveling north. Theobald, meanwhile, stumbles upon Frieda, Ozma's pet piglet, who tells them that Ozma is at Glinda's. The party ask her if she'd help them navigate Oz, as they mean to track the witch. She agrees and they put her in Theobald's backpack. With Badger atop Hannibal, they race off into the Gillikin Country.


Stopping for a rest in the Great Gillikin Forest. Frieda advises they enlist the help of King Magnus the Elephant, who she met when she came to the palace on a state visit. The party worry about wild cats, but Frieda tells them that no one kills anyone in Oz, and that the forest trees grow special fruits to satisfy the different animals providing all the nourishment carnivores need. In the Emerald City, the Keeper of the Royal Menagerie feeds the animals a special grain meal made up by the Wizard that tastes like whatever food each animal wants. Soon, the monkey sentries cry out, summoning Oran, an orangutan of the King's High Council who leads them to a clearing where they meet Nippur the jaguar, Topper the giraffe and King Magnus. He remembers Frieda from when he met her at court and when Ozma visited the Gillikin forest a year prior.


Magnus sends out word to his subjects, including Gorble the wild turkey, to locate the witch. After Magnus feeds his guests, Mika, a capuchin monkey returns with wrapping paper from the gift the Witch stole. It tells them that the gift came from Silico the Glassblower. Mika says the gift was a glass dome. They reason that Silico must live in Ev; as they are concerned about why the Witch stole the glass dome, they determine to go there. King Magnus commands Yeksh, a disgruntled vulture, to keep an eye on the Witch, and Theobald gives him the Wiseman's voicebox to communicate with them. To warn her of the threat, Magnus heads to the Emerald City, knowing Ozma will soon return with Glinda to celebrate her birthday. With the magic Spyglass of the Wiseman, Theobald sees the witch peering into the glass dome, which is like a paperweight, but inside appears to house an entire living world! They reason that the Witch must be seeking a way to enter it so she can rule. The Witch discovers her spies and flies off north with Yeksh in pursuit.


In the early morning, Badger, Hannibal and Theobald set off, but the cat and dog fall into a pit and cannot escape. Badger goes in search of help. Two men happen by, Quibble and Pettifog of Legomania, but they carp, equivocate and dispute over trivialities (such as debating if they're real, or what might go wrong if they help), and won't assist them, determining only that they'll report to the Town Council. Badger ends up in Legotown and tries to get help from them, but they are just as bad, claiming they must first ascertain who owns the pit, whether those in it really want to come out, and that it must be put in writing and notarized to absolve them of responsibility if anything goes wrong. Irritated, Badger quotes a fundamental law of Oz, stating that "everbody is expected to help everybody else wherever possible." When they equivocate further, he calls them hot air balloons without brains or hearts. They send him to Scholius, who was exiled for declaring that the law had a spirit as well as a letter.


The old scholar lives in a nearby cottage and welcomes Badger and agrees to help him with his friends. After they're freed, Scholius invites them to eat and spend the night. There they discuss who really lives in the glass dome and whether they're being protected or kept prisoner. Yeksh contacts them through the voicebox telling them the witch was unable to cross the Deadly Desert.


In the morning they bid goodbye to Scholius and head to the Deadly Desert. They spot the Witch and shine their torch on her, but it turns out to be Yetch enchanted by her shape-swap spell. She had taken his form, enlarged it, and flew over the Desert, telling Yeksh that if she makes it, she'll switch back. Soon enough, this transpires, though she fails to return the vulture back to his normal size, and Yeksh must contend with being seven feet tall. Badger and Hannibal grow cross with him for his constant complaining and blaming everyone else for his troubles, so Theobald acts as a mediator between them. The Crocheted Cat then remembers the Daemon of Fog, and summons him through his patch. The Daemon appears and after listening to their dilemma turns them into mist so that the vulture can fly them over the Desert with him flying below, creating rain as he passes over. Once in Ev, he restores them, and Badger is happy to find himself in his own body, though Yeksh is upset that neither the Fog Daemon or Badger can return him to his normal size.


After the Daemon departs, they head northeast to a tower spewing smoke that appears to be the Glassblower's factory. Yet when they attempt to cross the drawbridge, arrows fly out at them, knocking off Theobald and piercing Yeksh's neck and wing. Badger breaks off the arrows and removes them, and with salve and a charm spell, heals Yeksh of his painful wounds. Soldiers question what they were doing and if they're spies of the Witch who passed over their territory. While Hannibal is put in a kennel, Badger and Yeksh are brought before the Baron. In the castle, they find Theobald and Frieda safe, and Hannibal soon joins them after having had to fight the other kennel dogs. He cheers up at dinner, though, and the Baron explains that Ev, Rinkitink, Hiland/Loland and the Red Jinn all buy their glassware from the Glassblower. He invites them to join him for a witch hunt at dawn.


The next day, Theobald spies the Witch heading to the Glassblower's factory. The Chief Magician casts a magic resistance spell over the Baron's army and the Baron gives Badger a bow. Theobald's group depart and soon arrive at the glassworks, where they're met by a robot made entirely of glass, whose leg was broken by the Witch. He asks them to help the Glassblower, who's hiding under a glass dome as the Witch assaults him with a cloud of darkness. Badger uses his torch, while the glass robot opens a furnace so that more light shines in. The Witch turns him into a glass cockroach, but the Glassblower sees her weakness and illuminates his bowl. Everyone dashes into the dark cloud. Theobald and Hannibal use a pouch of sneezing potion to prevent her casting spells while Badger's torch penetrates the darkness. Seeing she's losing the battle, she mounts her broom and flies out the roof. When Yeksh pursues her, she stops him in his tracks by turning him only eight inches tall. Yet in her haste, she's forced to depart without her bag.


Silico introduces himself to his rescuers and departs briefly to host the Baron's army that have just arrived. At the reception that follows, Frieda happily greets her mistress Ozma, who has arrived with the Cowardly Lion, Hungry Tiger, Glinda, Dorothy, and the Wizard, who admires the Wiseman's magical implements. The travelers explain all that's occurred since they arrived, and inside the Witch's bag, they retrieve the glass dome, which Silico delivers to Ozma in person, explaining its secret:


The Titan Saturn was released from his prison under Mt. Helicon by the Olympian Immortals in exchange for his "help in setting aside a time world," in which the Olympians wish to live after finding modern life more than they could cope with. Creating a loop of a hundred years which Saturn pulled from the ancient past, he created a self-contained miniature world in which he placed the Olympians and their subjects. Having heard of Silico, Vulcan the Immortal of Metalworking and Fire sent Saturn to the Glassblower to request a glass container to protect the world. With Vulcan's help, the outer dome was made of a special steel-glass alloy. A second interior dome keeps the heavens in place. Not trusting the world to the ocean bottom or potential attack by the Nome King, Silico sent it with the Queen of Ev to bring to Ozma for protection. Ozma consults with Glinda, the Wizard and Dorothy, who agree she should accept it. Silico gives her instructions for entering the Dome World through a Time Road should she need to visit it. Ozma then invites all of them, including the Wiseman, to her party on the morrow, and with the Magic Belt restores Yeksh to his proper size, but with the caveat that every time he complains he'll shrink two inches. If at the end of the year, he hasn't shrunk much, she'll take off the spell; otherwise, it'll stay on another year until he learns. Glinda then restores the glass robot and the Wizard repairs his broken leg. The travelers from Throomb then visualize the Wiseman's study and materialize there. The Wiseman informs them that the Witch is resting in the northern mountains near the Nome Kingdom.


The next morning is Ozma's birthday and they visualize themselves in the palace, where they begin a week-long celebration. In that time, they locate the Witch. With the Magic Belt, Ozma sends her back to the Wilderness of Wambu. The Dome World is affixed to an emerald table and placed in the corner of a private reception room. Toto befriends Hannibal and shows him the sights. Hannibal even catches Eureka stalking piglets and drops her in an Ozade fountain. At last everyone returns home, content with the memories of the places they visited and new friends they made.


Continuity Notes

Animals of the Great Gillikin Forest: The community of animals in the Great Gillikin Forest are here introduced, including Oran the orangutan, Nippur the jaguar, Topper the giraffe, Gorble the wild turkey, Mika the capuchin monkey, Yeksh the vulture, and the king of the forest, King Magnus the elephant. There are also monkey sentries who keep watch. King Magnus, Nippur, Oran, Topper and Gorble appear again in Wooglet in Oz.


Daemon of Fog: A generally benevolent entity, a kind of fog elemental, called by the Wiseman one of the "Lords of Enchantment." He dines on the same kind of food (mist, vapor and dew) that Polychrome and her sisters dine on.


Dating: Internal evidence indicates this story takes place from August 16-27. Page 44 erroneously states that Dorothy, the Shaggy Man and Johnny Dooit crossed the Deadly Desert last week, when in fact it should state "last year," as per the author's letter to me, which states that this story "begins at a birthday party after the one in The Road to Oz and before The Emerald City." This dates means there is an overlap between this story and the journey of the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman, Wogglebug, Gump, Sawhorse and Jack Pumpkinhead in the Interplanetary Dispatches. This actually works as the Red Jinn hadn't met Jack until the book Jack Pumpkinhead in Oz, nor is there mention in this story of the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman, Wogglebug, Gump or Sawhorse being at Ozma's party.


Dorothy: The appearance of Dorothy in this story indicates that she was brought back by Ozma (or Glinda) to celebrate Ozma's birthday party.


Legomania: Nothing to do with legos, this is a Gillikin town of people who think and behave legalistically, quibble and carp over trivialities, and is similar in concept to towns like Flutterbudget Center and Rigmarole Town in the Quadling Country (The Emerald City of Oz) in that it keeps certain together groups who share a similar psychological imbalance (and who don't wish to be helped). Quibble and Pettifog are from Legomania. Individuals can depart these towns if they grow out of the sickness, as was the case with Scholious who was exiled for declaring the law had a spirit as well a letter, and came to see their legalistic attitude as ridiculous and wrong.


Olympian gods: This is the first story (in terms of when it was written) to depict the existence of the ancient Greek gods as actual personages. They're not called gods here, not even by Saturn the Titan, but Immortals, and appear less powerful than the myths depicted them. Because they have trouble coping with the modern world (the late 19th century), they rescue Saturn from his imprisonment under Mt. Helicon where they'd long ago placed him in exchange for his help in leaving the world behind. (It is noted in Lurline and the White Ravens of Oz that the gods require the worship of mortals to thrive, and this may explain their psychological difficulty with the modern world.) With the help of Vulcan (the immortal of fire and metalworking) and Silico the Glassblower, Saturn creates an alternate reality by borrowing a century from the ancient past and putting it into a loop. Silico then enwraps Olympus and this time loop in a glass dome underneath another dome of the heavens, allowing the Olympian immortals to live forever in this enchanted Dome World. Ozma keeps it safe in her palace in the Emerald City, and even has a portal in which she can enter this world. It is unknown if Poseidon/Neptune is amongst them, as he appeared last in The Pearl and the Pumpkin, The Golden Goblin, and is mentioned by King Anko in Pendexter's Wooglet in Oz.


Ozma's First Year: The text indicates that Ozma and Glinda worked a lot of protective magic around the country in her first year. 


Piglet Names: As the Oziana 1995 story "Pigmentation" names Ozma's pet piglet Peggy, and Pendexter names her Frieda, it can be assumed that either the piglet has a nickname, or two names, e.g., Peggy Frieda.


Red Jinn of Ev: This story confirms that the Red Jinn and Ozma and her court were first introduced as early as 1904, which works because he hadn't met Jack Pumpkinhead until the book of his name, which is explained by the fact that Jack was away in the Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz adventures.


Shape-Swap Spell: Other than the name, this spell used by the Golden Witch to transform herself into the vulture Yetch, and Yetch into her, is identical to the Switcheroo Spell that Mombi used to transform Ozma and Tippetarius in The Marvelous Land of Oz and The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz trilogy.


Silico the Glassblower: This near-human glass artist lives in Ev. What relationship he has with Silica, the Royal Glassworks of Oz (from The Hidden Prince of Oz), is unknown, but there appears to be one.





The Flying Thief of Oz

Synopsis: When the Magnificent Mennen flies onto Henry's farm, he offers Dorothy a flight aboard his plane, which leads the pair to the land of Oz. There, Mennen disappears, and Ozma and the Wizard are shocked to discover a theft of the Royal Treasury. Using deductive clues, the Wizard struggles when he discovers that his main suspects are the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman and Cowardly Lion. 


Continuity Notes

Dating: There is some discrepancy with the dating of this story. The text indicates that it must take place while Dorothy and her aunt and uncle are still living in Kansas. Eureka's trial (from Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz) is said to have taken place a year earlier, which would place this in 1903. The titular flyer, however, says he just "returned from the Dominguez Air Meet in California," which is an event that took place from January 10th-20th, 1910. Even if one were to date the Oz books by their publication date (which The Royal Timeline of Oz does not), the 1910 figure doesn't work, as Dorothy, Em and Henry would be living in Oz at that time.  Therefore, one has to chalk up mention of the Dominguez Air Meet to historian interpolation and error, or to an earlier unrecorded meet. Prior to 1904, the Wright Brothers (who the titular aviator mentions) were still developing and testing their Wright Flyer, which the Smithsonian Institute calls "...the first powered, heavier-than-air machine to achieve controlled, sustained flight with a pilot aboard." This is controversial, of course, given the earlier achievements of one Gustave Whitehead whose claims precede the Wright Brothers by two years. Yet, as the Wizard knows what an aviator is, had heard of planes, but never seen one, the 1904 date works well enough.






The Braided Man of Oz

History: Not to be confused with the Oziana 1997 story of the same name.


Synopsis: Believing his flutters have been stolen, the Braided Man convinces his friend Gorry, a tamed wooden gargoyle, that they must leave Pyramid Mountain in search of them. But after several hours, Gorry ends up flying too high and is hit by a USAF jet, which causes him to lose his wing and plummet down to the ground. Gorry utters a magic spell that protects them as they land in the Deadly Desert.


The pair are approached by a group of mechanical men. They're friendly, however, and as it's cold, set up a fire for them, which they fall asleep besides. Gorry awakens later that night to find on of the robotic men attempting to snuff out the fire. Gorry pursues him just as a sandstorm emerges. The robots Peter and Paul explain to the Braided Man that the robot Gorry's pursuing, 034D Hc84, is a damaged model, who got away from his scientist-creators. They've been searching for him for years, as he's dangerous and drains energy from his victims to survive. Peter brings the Braided Man to a German Panzer that they use for water storage and get him a drink, but he worries about his lost friend.


Gorry, meanwhile, doesn't know where he is, but hearing the sound of flutters follows it, only to fall down a hole atop 034D HC84. The robot attacks and drains Gorry of his energy.


The next day, the Braided Man goes searching for his companion, but the heat from the sands burns off his shoes. Just then, he discovers the Silver Shoes, which he puts on. Cleaning them from the sand while wishing he could find Gorry, he transports to his location. To his horror, he discovers his friend is dead. Paul later retrieves Gorry's wing as the Braided Man is burying him. Wishing he could bring him back to life as Ozma brought to life Jack and the Gump, he's suddenly transported to Ozma's throne room. She hears his plea and agrees to help, and Gorry is soon returned to life.


A celebration ensues and the mechanical men are brought to the Emerald City. The Tin Woodman takes a liking to them and offers them a place to settle in the Winkie Country, which they accept. During Gorry and the Braided Man's journey back to Pyramid Mountain, the Silver Shoes fall off back into the desert, but he's happy to discover and retrieve his lost flutters, fluttering in the air before him.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Takes place over the course of two days in January. There is no explicit date for the story, save that it must take place before Elanor Kennedy's "The Braided Man of Oz," in Oziana 1997, in which he's been visiting the Emerald City each year for Ozma's birthday, and by story's end is invited to live (at least part of the time) in the Emerald City. This story explains how he comes to know Ozma in the first place, as well as how he gets back and forth. The characters are mentioned briefly in Hurray for Oz, where it's indicated that its takes place 20 years before that story, which would place it in 1968. But because it must take place before Kennedy's "The Braided Man of Oz," which takes place before The Lost Princess of Oz, this dating reference must be ignored.


Deadly Desert: Gorry's spell, prior to landing on the Deadly Desert, protected the Braided Man from burning up, and allowed him to traverse the desert, albeit not without suffering some of the effects of cold and heat, not to mention the loss of his shoes.


Silver Shoes: One of the few stories in which this magical footwear belonging once to the Wicked Witch of the East appears, although in this tale the Lionel mistakenly refers to them as the Ruby Slippers, a mistake the editor should have fixed. The Braided Man finds them in the Deadly Desert, and it returns there. That no one notices them when he travels to the Emerald City for the first time may be because his garments are so long they cover them up. The Silver Shoes appear next in The Witch Queen of Oz.


Wooden Gargoyle: The fact that Gorry is a tamed wooden gargoyle is a story yet untold. How many others there are is unknown. It also indicates that at least one wooden gargoyle survived the fire that destroyed their home (see The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1), and it's clear from Ruggedo in Oz and The Emerald City Mirror that more did as well.







Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz

History: Book 45 of the Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five! The third Oz story Baum wrote takes place, not in Oz, but in the U.S. when the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman, Jack Pumpkinhead, Wogglebug, Sawhorse and Gump take their "first vacation" from the Emerald City to the United States to visit with Dorothy and numerous others. Hijinks ensue. See below for details.


Continuity Notes The characters departed in mid-August, and according to The Royal Proclamation—an official decree by Ozma (a full-page prior in the very first strip)—dated 1904, this was announced as being the second year of her reign, which is established by her inauguration in July 1902 (even though her ascension to the throne took place in the year prior, as seen in The Marvelous Land of Oz). Ozma approved of their visit in March 1904.


Their adventures were recorded by Baum and McDougall (courtesy of magic caps which rendered them invisible) who followed them, recording their tales and drawing their images for the Philadelphia Syndicate. The first issue of the Ozmapolitan records a letter from Dorothy in which she says she's aware of their coming visit, had even petitioned for them to come, knows that Baum wrote her story down in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (and its sequel which she read an advance copy of), has met him and McDougall, and is looking forward to seeing the stage play. That she also knows who Ozma is places the events of this story after Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz.


Stellar Itinerary:

Through 14 in-universe publicity articles (called "Interplanetary Dispatches") leading up to this strip, the Ozites make very brief trips by several different heavenly bodies, which appears to indicate that Oz is on another planet. However, there's considerable evidence that these planetary bodies exist within the fairy realm (as depicted in The Silver Princess in Oz and Ozoplaning with the Wizard of Oz), which appear to suggest a hollow earth conception. These include:

1. Unknown planet in the Argo system (possibly called Argo): August 17-18, 1904

2. The North Star: August 19

3. One of the planets of the Little Bear Constellation: August 20

4. One of the seven stars of the Dipper: August 21

5. Uranus: August 22

6. Neptune: August 23

7. Saturn: August 24

8. Jupiter: August 25

9. One of the Astrepoids: August 26

10. Mars: August 27

Almost all of these know of terrestrial animals (birds, horses, camels) and speak the English language (even those that seem more primitive). Mars itself knows of Oz and earth. Additionally, the real North Pole (the star Polaris) and the Big Dipper (Ursa Major) are stars, not planets. Also, the Gump wouldn't be able to fly to each in a matter of a day (no matter how fast he is, and he's not as fast as Santa's sleigh, as these strips demonstrate). All of this is further evidence that these spheres are either fairy ones (like Anuther Planet from The Silver Princess in Oz), or that Baum was advancing a different conception of what planets and starts are than what modern science currently postulates.


U.S. Itinerary (original version):

Baum and McDougall followed the visitors and recorded their actions, but the stories were arranged into a format dictated by the newspaper (and its editors). This resulted in a disjointed telling of events, which focused on episodic incidents rather than a logical sequence of events. The format also required a story a week, irrespective of when it occurred. This resulted in the Visitors seemingly jumping from one location to another without rhyme or reason. There's also a lack of geographic information in several stories. All that can be gleaned from the date of publication is that the episode in question must occur prior to it. Reilly & Lee's The Visitors of Oz contextualizes several of these events in a chronological order that makes more sense, and this is how the Royal Timeline of Oz places them. Here, however, is a listing of the episodes as presented in the original strips.

1. The Visitors start off at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri, sometime between August 28 and September 3d, 1904. They start off at the athletic field and end up in the man-made Cascades before departing.

 ("How the Adventurers Lost and Found Themselves"; "How the Tin Woodman Escaped the Magic Flood").


2. Prior to 9/18: Their next stop is at an unknown seashore, where the Sawhorse gets frightened by a German submarine.

("How the Strangers Found Themselves Between the Auto and the Deep Sea")


3. Prior to 9/25: They head to Dorothy's farm in Kansas, where they frighten a field hand and babysitter (Aunt Em and Uncle Henry appear to be away, either purchasing supplies or dealing with bank issues in nearby Topeka). The Sawhorse also saves Dorothy from her uncle's bull.

("How Uncle Eil Laughed Too Soon"; "How the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman Met Some Old Friends"; "How the Saw-horse Saved Dorothy's Life")


4. Prior to 10/16: In an unnamed town, the Visitors visit a cosmetologist.

("How the Ozites Met a Beauty Doctor")


5. Prior to 10/23: The Visitors are in Arizona, where they encounter a baboon and his trainer.

("How the Adventurers Encountered an Unknown Beast")


6. Prior to 10/30: They apparently pick up Dorothy on their way to Iowa for the Jones County Fair. There, the Scarecrow again enters the Sawhorse in a race (he did this at the end of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, when he had the Sawhorse race Jim the Cabhorse) that becomes a fiasco when Jack Pumpkinhead (whose riding jockey on the Sawhorse) loses his head, while they're in the lead, knocking into each of the jockeys in their wake.

("Jack Pumpkinhead and the Sawhorse Win a Race and Incite a Riot; The Wogglebug Restores Harmony")


7. Prior to 11/6: The Visitors head to an unnamed mountain, where the Gump once again gets trapped upon a jackdaws' nest. The events that follow are very similar to what happened to them in The Marvelous Land of Oz, though no one brings the similarity up. Once again, the Scarecrow ends up stuffed with money. This time, the Scarecrow is robbed of his cash by pretty girls at church fair in a pretty town. He ends up with English and Canadian money in the excess of three thousand dollars. There is no explanation as where this money goes (the Visitors seem without it again in the later strips). This episode seems apocryphal, but there may yet be an explanation.

("The Scarecrow Becomes a Man of Means in Spite of the Girls at a Church Fair")


8. Prior to 11/13: The Visitors end up in another unnamed village where Jack again loses his head in a well. The Wogglebug returns with seidlitz powder, which causes the water in the well to rise up, saving Jack's head. Perhaps this is where the Scarecrow's money went.

("How the Wogglebug Proved His Knowledge of Chemistry")


9. Prior to 11/20: Now in a big city, the Wogglebug hears a poor girl's request for a turkey on Thanksgiving. The Tin Woodman says he's spotted some flying nearby, so the Wogglebug and the Gump round up three wild turkeys and a hornbill, which they present to her. The original illustration shows him presenting the girl with three killed turkeys and one killed hornbill. Shanower's illustration presents them alive, as if to suggest that the Tin Woodman misunderstands. In the former case, it's very out of character for the Ozian company to have done this, especially the kindhearted Tin Woodman who cries when stepping on a flower. Unless, the Shanower version is correct in suggesting her desire for a turkey was misunderstood (and they thought she was looking for a pet), this episode seems quite apocryphal.

("How the Wogglebug Got a Thanksgiving Dinner")


10. Prior to 11/27: Possibly in the same city, a boy tells the Scarecrow about telegraph cables, while the Scarecrow tells him of being brought to life by the farmer who constructed him.

("The Scarecrow Tells a Fairy Tale to Children and Hears an Equally Marvelous True Story")


11. Prior to 12/4: Likely in the same city, Jack trades in the Sawhorse to get money to buy him a saddle, only to discover that he's lost the Sawhorse. After he gets a refund for the saddle, the money-lender wants to charge interest for the Sawhorse, but he breaks the glass and gets out.

("Jack Pumpkinhead Pawns the Sawhorse")


12. Prior to 12/11: Dorothy comes to stay with them in their rooms provided by the mayor. This seems to indicate that the city they're in is Topeka, however, it may be that they once again picked her up. Dorothy had planned to see the Wizard of Oz musical with them, and this may be when this occurs. If so, this is while the stage-play was yet only on Broadway. This would make the city they're in New York. While here, the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman and Wogglebug perform magic tricks her for amusement.

("Dorothy Spends an Evening With Her Old Friends and is Entertained With Wonderful Exhibitions")


13. Prior to 12/18: The Visitors head to the Laughing Valley to bring miniature toy-versions of themselves that they'd made with magic.

("How the Wogglebug and his Friends Visited Santa Claus")


14.Prior to 12/25: Another unnamed city. This time a mother implores the Visitors to find her missing child. Several of the visitors go off without enough information, but the Wogglebug uses his intelligence and magic to discover her.

("How the Wogglebug Found a Lost Child and Gave a Lesson in Heraldry")


15. Prior to 1/1/05: Another unnamed city. Another poor girl is grieving, this time because she can't afford an automobile. The Scarecrow magicks one for her, which causes all kinds of trouble and crashes, teaching both a lesson.

("The Scarecrow Presents a Magic Automobile to a Little Girl")


16. Prior to 1/8/05: While standing around facing the walls (so as not to disturb sleeping neighbors), the Tin Woodman hears a fire-truck and rushes off to save a poodle from a burning building.

("How the Tin Woodman Became a Fire Hero")


17. Prior to 1/15/05: In an unnamed village, the Tin Woodman grants two brothers a wish each. One wishes to be good, which by the end of the next day, has proved disastrous. So his brother uses his wish to make him as he was. The Tin Woodman learns a lesson and flies off in the Gump.

("The Two Wishes")


18. Prior to 1/22/05: An unnamed town, the Visitors discover a nasty kid who torments a cat, so they perform a Switcheroo Spell, where the boy ends up in the body of the cat (and the cat in the body of the boy). The boy learns a valuable lesson in cruelty, and is switched back.

("Tim Nichols and the Cat") This concept and basic theme are echoed in Ruth Plumly Thompson's King Comics short story "The Enchanted Cat."


19. Prior to 1/29/05: An unnamed town. Jack Pumpkinhead thinks he's doing a disabled veteran a favor when he magically grants him his leg back, but that proves disastrous for the veteran, and Jack is asked to take it away, learning a lesson about interfering in the process.

("Mr. Wimbles Wooden Leg")


20. Prior to 2/5/05: An unnamed location, the Tin Woodman is struck by lightning and becomes magnetized, so that every metallic thing around him is drawn to him.

("A Magnetic Personality")


21. Prior to 2/12/05: In an unnamed town, the Wogglebug helps poor Nan by giving her a magic button that enables to become the best cook in the country.

("Nan's Magic Button")


22. Prior to 2/19/05: An unnamed town. Mr. Jubb is ashamed of his small size, so the Wogglebug grants him lozenges to help him achieve the size he wants. His daughter Eliza, however, comes across them, and grows to the size of a giant.

("Eliza and the Lozenges")


23. Prior to 2/26/05: An unnamed town or city: The Wogglebug encounters a beggar, who assists in getting alms for, only to discover that he's a con-artist. A local policeman tells him that beggars are good for society because they encourage people to be charitable.

("The Wogglebug Encourages Charity")


The Wogglebug gets separated from his companions and goes off on his own adventures:


1. Main Street: Unnamed City: The Wogglebug discovers in a shop-window a dummy whose wearing a "Wagnerian Plaid" dress. His fetishizes over it to the point of obsession, and gets a job to earn money to buy it. But when he returns with enough money to purchase it, it's already been sold to a wealthy woman. After he pursues her, and nearly gets pummeled by her husband, she gives the dress to her maid Bridget. By coincidence the Wogglebug gets an invitation to a ball which Bridget is attending. The Wogglebug ends up starting a brawl, losing Bridget and his dress. She sells the dress to a second-hand dealer, and it's purchased by a Swedish widow, who, of course, the Wogglebug bumps into. She takes advantage of him and has him pay for dinner and dessert for her and her children. Then, to keep him away from her house, she sprays insecticide. The widow trades the dress to a wash lady, who, when the Wogglebug spots her, thinks is the devil and runs away. She sells it to a Chinese man, who makes a robe out of it. The Wogglebug sees and offends him, but manages to tear off a large piece of it and runs off. Pursued by the Chinese man, intent on killing him, the Wogglebug gets aboard a balloon and floats off.


2. The Wogglebug reveals himself to have wings (although not strong enough for flying) and jumps off the balloon. He encounters an Arabian family. After convincing the sheik that it's bad luck to kill a wogglebug, the Arab lets him live, but takes his much coveted Wagnerian plaid, which he makes a vest from, returning to the Wogglebug a small piece made into a tie.


3. Content, the Wogglebug walks across an unnamed desert and finds a jungle filled with talking animals that are ruled by a weasel. After a silly encounter with them, the Wogglebug walks across the forest and plains, and ends up back in the city he started from. This is problematic since, besides this instance, Baum doesn't demonstrate that there are talking animals anywhere except in fairy realms, and not in the Outside World. It seems that the Wogglebug passed through a dimensional gate both in the balloon, and later on foot when he departed.


The Visitors from Oz: (Not to be confused with the original story written by Martin Gardner entitled The Visitors from Oz or the 2005 Hungry Press volume below.) 

In 1960, Reilly & Lee had Jean Kellogg repurposed these stories into a more arc-driven chronological framework, adding new stories and editing older ones, all re-illustrated by Dick Martin. There's even a postscript ending. The text adds a scenario where the Ozian visitors meets Aunt Em and Uncle Henry, but this has to be seen as artistic license and excised. This book does not include the story from The Woggle-bug Book, The Unique Adventures of the Woggle-bug. In this iteration, one of the main purposes of their trip is to visit with Dorothy. This seems incidental in the Queer Visitors strips (in fact, it appears they accidentally stumble upon her farm), although the Ozmapolitan of 1904 indicates that Dorothy was expecting them, and had plans to see The Wizard of Oz musical with them. The Visitors from Oz adds to this by indicating that they're going to visit on Dorothy's birthday.


U.S. itinerary (expanded version):

The corrected version shows that the Visitors started out in Brooklyn New York, and traveled west to Virginia, Missouri and then Texas, stopping over briefly in Oklahoma and ending up in the Rocky Mountains. Realizing their mistake (that they went too far west), they leave Colorado and head east, where they finally find Kansas. There adventures after leaving Dorothy are not detailed here (leaving room for the remaining Queer Visitors strips), save their departing trip when they head to the Laughing Valley to meet up with Santa in late December.

1. "How the Visitors Arrived from Oz": This opening is an entirely new adventure original to this book, and deals with the Visitors discovery of Playland amusement park and the son of the owner, Jimmy, who the Scarecrow rescues after the boy attempts to save Jack Pumpkinhead's head. This story presents a slight problem as Playland Amusement Part wasn't built until 1927. More likely, the New York park they visited was one of the three amusement parks at Coney Island, Luna Park, Dreamland, or the Steeplechase Park, which had a roller coaster, merry-go-round, Ferris wheel, and the architecture pictured at this time in History. August 29.


2. "How the Travelers Told Their Tales": This continues the Visitor's time with Jimmy, as they tell him their stories of how they came to be. In some respects, it's an adaptation of "The Scarecrow Tells a Fairy Tale to Children and Hears an Equally Marvelous True Story," but it differs in that two additional Visitors tell their tales, and there's no other audience besides Jimmy. As such, there reason why the Scarecrow can't have regaled other children with his History later on. August 29.

a. After this is likely where the following Queer Visitors episode takes place: "How the Strangers Found Themselves Between the Auto and the Deep Sea," which may have occurred off the East Coast of New York. August 29.

3. "How Patty Ate the Pills": Now in Virginia, Jack Pumpkinhead offers Patricia Partridge pills that will make her grow. The Tin Woodman comes to her rescue and she shrinks back down. This is essentially a reworking of what the Wogglebug does in "Eliza and the Lozenges," but with different Visitors in the story, allowing the latter tale to still occur later on in their visit. It's ironic that when Patty asks Jack if he's from Mars, he doesn't know what Mars is, even though he'd been there a few days ago. August 30

a. After this is likely where the following Queer Visitors episode take place: "How the Adventurers Lost and Found Themselves" and "How the Tin Woodman Escaped the Magic Flood," which is at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in Missouri. August 31 and September 1.

4. "How the Pumpkinhead Swapped the Sawhorse": This is a direct adaptation of "Jack Pumpkinhead Pawns the Sawhorse," with some differences: This version leaves out the pawnshop and Jack's need for money. Also, Jack figures out his mistake on his own. In the earlier version, the Wogglebug points it out to him. The discrepancies are not enough that the two should be viewed as different events, and the contradictions should be ignored in favor of seeing the two as presenting additional details of the one event. This version also makes it clear that they're in Texas, and the only reason they're here is because they thought it might be Kansas. September 2.


5. "How the Tin Woodman Granted Timothy's Wish": An adaptation of "The Scarecrow Presents a Magic Automobile to a Little Girl," with two differences, the principle characters. In the original, it's the Scarecrow granting a little girl a car. In this, it's the Scarecrow granting it to a boy. Also in this version, the Wogglebug is the rescuer. The differences are significant enough that both incidents can be said to have happened at different times. This probably takes place on their way north from Texas to the Rocky Mountains, and because it's green, it might still be Texas or even Oklahoma. September 3.


6. "How Our Friends Barely Escaped the Bears: As with the first chapter, this is an entirely new episode that has no equivalent with any Baum story. The Visitors went too far west into the Colorado Rocky Mountains. September 4.

a. After this is likely where the following Queer Visitors episode take place: "The Scarecrow Becomes a Man of Means in Spite of the Girls at a Church Fair," which occurs while they're in the mountains. As their experiences in the jackdaws' nest is nearly the same as the one they had in The Marvelous Land of Oz, this is likely an apocryphal tale. There's also no explanation as to where the three thousand dollars go, or why the Visitors later have no money. Knowing how poor Dorothy and her family were, one would think that they'd give it to her.

7. "How the Tin Woodman Developed a Magnetic Personality": The visitors finally find Kansas. Two of Baum's strips are covered here, "Uncle Eli Laughed Too Soon" and "A Magnetic Personality," both of which begin in Pogosh County, Kansas. There is no "Pogosh County" today, but it can arguably have been a small town at the turn of the century that no longer exists. Uncle Eli gets an expanded role when he attempts to shoot the Tin Woodman (who is saved by his magnetism). Following this, there's room for the events of the original strip to occur later on as the Tin Woodman walks into the main part of town. September 5.


8. "How the Oz Visitors Discovered Dorothy at Last": A straightforward adaptation of "How the Saw-horse Saved Dorothy's Life." Wisely, the Wogglebug uses a wishing pill to get the Visitors directly to Dorothy's farm, and just in time to save her from the rampaging bull. This essentially wipes out the introductory scene from the Queer Visitors strip, with Toto attacking the Wogglebug in "How the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman Met Some Old Friends." This is fine omission as the original version included some scenes that are difficult to reconcile, namely that Toto and Dorothy already know who the Wogglebug, Jack Pumpkinhead, the Gump and Sawhorse are. Additionally, the original had them running into Dorothy purely by accident, since the only reason they landed was to see what a farm was like. The new version has them, more appropriately, looking for Dorothy. September 6.


9. "How the Wogglebug Worked His Wonders": Dorothy's birthday party takes place in this version, establishing a possible date on September 7. The discussion of beauty is a reference to their visit to the cosmetologist in "How the Ozites Met a Beauty Doctor" (which can occur here), while the magic performance section adapts "Dorothy Spends an Evening With Her Old Friends and is Entertained With Wonderful Exhibitions." In this version, Dorothy has her friends with her, and appears to be in her house. In the original, she's come to stay with the Visitors in the rooms put up for them by the mayor. The latter seems implausible (unless the Gump has gone to pick her up). But a problem that's introduced in this version is the presence of Aunt Em and Uncle Henry, who shouldn't know that Oz is real until they go there in The Emerald City of Oz (though they likely suspected Dorothy was telling the truth at least from the time of Eureka in Oz). To salvage this scenario, The Royal Timeline of Oz excises page 82. September 7. It seems that Aunt Em and Uncle Henry must be away, likely in Topeka, perhaps dealing with house issues (mortgage, obtaining supplies, etc.)

a. There is a four-month gap before the Visitors depart back to Oz. This is is likely where the following take place: "Jack Pumpkinhead and the Sawhorse Win a Race and Incite a Riot; the Wogglebug Restores Harmony," which features Dorothy and would take place the next day on September 8th; "How the Adventurers Encountered an Unknown Beast," which is in Arizona. After that, it's impossible to tell where they head. "How the Wogglebug Proved his Knowledge of Chemistry," "The Scarecrow Tells a Fairy Tale to Children and Hears an Equally Marvelous True Story," "How the Wogglebug Found a Lost Child and Gave a Lesson in Heraldry," "The Scarecrow Presents a Magic Automobile to a Little Girl," "How the Tin Woodman Became a Fire Hero," "The Two Wishes," "Tim Nichols and the Cat," "Mr. Wimble's Wooden Leg," "Nan's Magic Button," "Eliza and the Lozenges," and "The Woggle-Bug Encourages Charity" might take place literally anywhere in the U.S.


b. If one accepts The Untold Adventures of the Visitors from Oz, the story "How the Visitors Saved the School" goes here. It takes about three weeks to a month, and takes place in New York City.


c. The Wogglebug gets lost at this juncture, leading to the events of The Unique Adventures of the Woggle-bug. It takes place over the course of six days. After this, he's back with his friends.

10. "How the Gump Raced Santa's Reindeer": A direct adaptation of "How the Wogglebug and his Friends Visited Santa Claus," which marks Baum's first crossover (the Oz series and The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus), something he'll continue and expand on in The Road to Oz. This takes place in December, over four months after the prior story ("How the Wogglebug Worked His Wonders") to allow for the remainder of the Queer Visitors strips to occur (which are listed above). It notes that they'd made several interesting trips in the interval, but that it was time to get back to Oz for a "magnificent celebration in Ozma's palace." The dating of their trip to the Laughing Valley is in error, as the Tin Woodman claims it's Christmas Eve. Yet, the equivalent Queen Visitors strip in is dated December 18, and the Visitors say "it's nearly Christmastime." The error is understandable given that Santa is literally in his sleigh flying off to deliver presents to children. Why then would he be two weeks early? One Ryl says that because there are so many more children, Santa has to get an early start. The story also notes that the Laughing Valley has snow from the North Pole, so perhaps there's a second toy-factory there, and that's where he's headed.


In-Universe Explanation

The plausibility of these stories may seem strained since some from the Outside World don't seem terribly shocked or upset by the appearance of a walking, talking scarecrow, metal-man, pumpkinhead, gump, sawhorse and human-sized insect dressed as a dandy. However, two factors can play into the reality of this scenario if one wishes to see how these stories can reasonably have occurred:


1. Baum's musical extravaganza The Wizard of Oz was then a huge hit in the States, and was even known abroad. In the Ozmapolitan, Dorothy even says she wishes to go see it with her Ozian friends when they arrive.


2. The newspapers "announced" the arrival of these characters from several weeks prior to their landing in the U.S.


With these two factors in the media, ordinary citizens of the U.S. likely thought that these personages were part of an elaborate publicity stunt designed to advertise the running musical and upcoming Baum book (unaware that the latter was based on actual events). Those who came across the Ozian visitors who don't know about these events were clearly frightened. Children and some adults clearly believed they were fairies (which may not have been uncommon given their publicity by Arthur Conan Doyle and others). One woman thinks the Wogglebug is the Devil. Most, however, likely marveled at how amazing and lifelike the costumes were, or, conversely, were indifferent (or even hostile) to what they deemed the marketing ploys of early twentieth century city-folk.


Ozma appears to be sending them merely for vacation, without any attempt to secure diplomatic ties with the Outside World, although the Visitors do end having a room given them by the mayor of some city, so perhaps that was a factor that didn't go anywhere. More likely, she was curious about the place where Dorothy and the Wizard came from. Ozma and Glinda do something unusual. Not only do they give them magic so that they're able to stay alive in the Outside World, but they allow them to have magical powers to use while they're there to benefit who they come across. Several of these attempts fail, but there is still very little that's revealed during this four month long excursion. One thing that's notable (in "How the Adventurers Returned Home") is their disdain of money. At this point, Ozma has stopped the use of money in the Emerald City and surrounding areas, but their testimony convinces her to ban money altogether. Of course, old habits die hard, even in Oz, but for the most part she succeeds.


For further chronological details, see the Appendices.

Publication History


Over the years, The Baum Bugle reprinted much of Walt McDougall's work, but in a far smaller size that rendered the text difficult to read. For the first time since they debuted in The Philadelphia Syndicate (from August 28th, 1904 to February 26th 1905), Baum's Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz newspaper strip was reprinted in its original size, format, and with McDougall's original artwork in the 2009 oversized volume from Sunday Press. Along with Baum's strips, this also includes Denslow's competing Scarecrow and Tinman strips from 1904.



The Third Book of Oz: In 1986 and 1989, the Queer Visitors strips were revisited by Eric Shanower, Hugh Pendexter III and Martin Williams. Published as The Third Book of Oz by Armstrong Press (and three years later by Buckethead Enterprises of Oz), this publication featured illustrations by Eric Shanower, replacing both Dick Martin's illustrations and Walt McDougall's, which proved impractical to reproduce in a smaller size. The Third Book of Oz, so named for its chronological place in canon, changed Baum's text to remove the racial slurs extant in the original publication. This edition was also the first to incorporate the follow-up story from The Woggle-Bug Book entitled The Unique Adventures of the Woggle-bug, albeit heavily edited to remove the racial slurs as well as to incorporate answers to the ubiquitous contest question, "What did the Woggle-bug say?"



The Visitors from Oz: This 2005 volume from Hungry Tiger Press included for the first time in a 100 years the twenty-six complete and unedited American newspaper strip stories written by L. Frank Baum. This edition restored the original text, but had to eliminate McDougall's artwork for practical purposes, and instead included Shanower's illustrations (from both editions of The Third Book of Oz), as well Baum's follow-up story from The Woggle-Bug Book called, The Unique Adventures of the Woggle-bug



Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz: The original strips were reproduced with their original text and their original artwork by Walt McDougall in their original size by Sunday Press in 2009. This is the definitive edition of these strips, and include W.W. Denslow's competing strip Scarecrow and Tinman in its original format, as well as several ancillary strips from McDougall and Denslow, an unpublished Oz strip from 1925 called "Adventures in Oz," a "Nip & Tuck" adventure from John R. Neill and "Billy Bounce" from W.W. Denslow.






The Unique Adventures of the Woggle-bug

Woggle-Bug Book

History: Book #46 of the Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five! The Wogglebug Book, Baum's fourth Oz story, is a continuation of the Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz newspaper strip stories, focusing on the Wogglebug and his madcap attempts to acquire a certain fabric he'd become enamored with. This was geared more for adult audiences, as Baum indulged in the racial humor deemed amusing in that day, rendering this one of the rare offensive books he wrote. Re-edited versions of this story found in The Third Book of Oz and The Visitors from Oz (see above) remove the offensive stereotypes and make it possible for readers of all ages and sensitivities to enjoy it. These latter two were re-illustrated by Eric Shanower for Armstrong Press and Buckethead Enterprises of Oz (and later Hungry Tiger Press). A reprint of the original Wogglebug Book is available on


Continuity Notes

Dating: This story takes place after the end of the Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz newspaper strips at the end of 1904. Regarding the adventurers’ uncharacteristic use of magic, and the Wogglebug’s four arms, retcons have been provided. It's clear from the text that Ozma and Glinda equipped the adventurers with special abilities for use on their travels throughout America, and as depicted in Beach Blanket BabylOz (wherein Scarecrow becomes lifeless upon entering the mortal worlds), some kind of magical protection would also be required. As regards the Wogglebug's extra arms, the Oziana 1987 story "The Wogglebug's New Clothes" indicates that the titular being started off with six limbs (four arms and two legs), which is how Baum describes him in the newspaper strip and book. "The Eldritch Horror of Oz" indicates that he either had them removed, or conjoined, to appear more human. Similarly, he must have removed his wings, or keep them under his clothes.






How the Adventurers Returned Home

Available to read here!


Synopsis: The visitors tell Ozma of their trip, and explain how the use of money in the U.S. has caused so many difficulties.


Continuity Notes The original strip failed to address how the adventurers returned to Oz, or even the journey back, which this story does.






Available to read here!


Synopsis: The Scarecrow wonders about Valentine's Day and love's correlation to fire, as everyone else celebrates having a heart. He determines that as love and passion are akin to fire, it's something that is not for him.


Continuity Notes

Dating: Set before The Patchwork Girl of Oz.






Back to the Timeline of Oz










The Corn Mansion of Oz

Synopsis: When the Scarecrow grows homesick, he sets off for Glinda's, wondering if he's been enchanted. On the way, he discovers he actually desires his own home in the country, and endeavors to have his corncob mansion built on a design created by Jack Pumpkinhead.


Continuity Notes

Corncob Mansion: In Lucky Bucky in Oz, the Scarecrow gives the Tin Woodman the credit for actually building the castle. In this narrative, it is Timorous (who also built the Tin Woodman's castle) who physically built it, with the help of Tin Woodman from the design stage to the actual construction, which may explain why the Scarecrow credits him.


Dating: The main body of the text is set over the course of the summer, ending just prior to the start of The Emerald City of Oz. The frame story takes place a year later.


Floors: Jack's design of the mansion [110] implies that only six floors were built, though in Lucky Bucky in Oz it is either 12 or 20. Additionally, in The Emerald City of Oz, only five floors are indicated (chapter 24). This may not be contradiction, however, as Jack's interior plans were upgraded [131], and the listing of the floors [134/5] doesn't discount the possibility that additional floors were later added.


Sequel: This book serves as a sequel of sorts to the author's earlier The Tin Castle of Oz, explaining how the Tin Woodman got his home. This book also contains the short story: A Pumpkin Patch in Oz, which shows how Jack got his home as well.






The Emerald City of Oz

The sixth book of the Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!


Synopsis: Angry at the loss of his Magic Belt and humiliation he suffered, the Nome King approaches General Blug and Colonel Crinkle to obtain their advice in attacking Oz. When they refuse, he has them (apparently) killed, and enlists a new general, Guph, to help with revenging himself on Oz. Guph makes a dangerous journey to three lands run by evil spirits, the Whimsies, Growleywogs and Phanfasms, recruiting each in turn to help them in their invasion, which will proceed through an underground tunnel beneath the Deadly Desert, and emerging in the Emerald City.


Uncle Henry and Aunt Em are, meanwhile, unable to pay their mortgage, and near to losing the house when Dorothy asks Ozma to take them in. Happy to do so, Ozma brings them to the Emerald City to live. Feeling astounded and out of place, Ozma sends them a tour of Oz with Dorothy, Toto, Billina, the Sawhorse, Shaggy, Ombi Amby and the Wizard. Together, they visit the Wogglebug's Athletic College, Miss Cuttenclip, who has a village of living paper dolls, and Fuddlecumjig, where the residents scatter into jigsaw puzzle pieces that have to be put back together. There they meet and put together Larry the Lord High Chigglewitz and Grandmother Knit.


Dorothy, Billina and Toto get separated from the group and discover three additional communities: Utensia, where the inhabitants are living kitchen utensils and plates, Bunbury, where the inhabitants are living baked goods (and where Toto and Billina ends up eating a resident), and Bunnybury, a village of sapient rabbits whose king longs for the old days of freedom, but later comes to appreciate what he has.


Dorothy and her companions rejoin the larger group and proceed to Rigmarole, where the residents speak much but say little, and Flutterbudget, where the residents live in constant fear of things that will likely never come to pass. These two communities are said to be Defense settlements, and those who suffer from their conditions are exiled there. After this, they travel to the Tin Woodman's Tin Castle, where they discover the Nome King's plot to destroy Oz.


Meanwhile, as the plot to invade Oz begins at midnight and will be a journey of six hours to arrive at the Emerald City by daybreak, each of the three evil races plots to betray and destroy the other. Ozma sees what is going on in the Magic Picture, but refuses to be concerned. Everyone else is quite concerned, however, and Ozma—refusing to flee her city—seeks a nonviolent solution, which the Scarecrow comes up with.


Filling the tunnel with dust, the invaders burst upon the Emerald City and rush off to drink water from the Forbidden Fountain. As the Fountain contains the Waters of Oblivion, which cause those who drink it to forget their past, the enemies are rendered harmless and are sent home by means of the Magic Belt.


Continuity Notes

Animal-Rights: Baum indicates for the second time since The Road to Oz that animals in Oz are on equal footing with humans. Dorothy informs her aunt that no one eats chickens in Oz (p. 149), and the Tin Woodman confirms that "every created thing is safe from harm in my domain, and I would as soon thinking of killing my little friend Dorothy as killing one of my tin fishes." The Tin Woodman even discusses showing consideration to flies, a conversation (p. 250) that demonstrates that there are some sapient insects in Oz, such as flies and large mosquitoes that sing but never bite or annoy people (some of these appear in The Tin Castle of Oz).


Book Structure: This is Baum's first Oz book with a multiple ongoing storyline (Queen Zixi of Ix employed this as well), that of Dorothy and company touring Oz, and that of the Nome King and General Guph gathering enemies for war against Oz. The former is a travelogue with pastoral, humorous and satiric elements, whereas the latter is a travelogue that comes the closest Baum ever got to the horror genre. Aside from the latter element (which Jack Snow will expand on), the structure is a model that Thompson will utilize for several of her books.


Bunbury: Both Toto and Dorothy demonstrate their immaturity here (as Dorothy did in a different way in The Road to Oz), the former when he eats a few sapient citizens of Bunbury, and the latter when she defends and justifies his actions. The latter can be seen as defensiveness on her part when accused, but it makes her a hypocrite, as she'd earlier reprimanded Toto for wanting to eat Billina. Bunbury may be the creation of a fairy or witch known as the Queen of the Flour Folk, who rules in Cookry Land. See "The Little Gingerbread Man."


Bunnybury: Bunnybury was created by Glinda, potentially to protect albino rabbits from being predated on, as their color gives them a disadvantage in the wild, though when this occurred is not stated. It may have been before Lurline's 1743 enchantment. The Rabbit of the Moon comes to settle here (From Oz to the Moon). Other rabbits live in Oz, such as Rabbit-Town-by-the-Brook (The Emerald City Mirror #25). Bunnybury is visited again by Dorothy, who brings Ozma, the Scarecrow, Scraps and Tin Woodman, in The Emerald City Mirror #58. A New Bunnybury is also started at some point, as mentioned in the "Santa Claus and the Nome Hijacking" from The Emerald City Mirror #40.


Dating: The events of this story take place over the course of 15 days (see the Day-to-Day Chronology for details), likely in early September.


Evil Spirits: The Whimsies, Growleywogs, and Phanfasms are each characterized as evil spirits, the latter as Erbs, the "most powerful and merciless of all the evil spirits." Of the latter, "No one had been near their mountain home for several thousand years." The Phanfasms return again in several stories, including Fiona Freckles, the First and Foremost, The Law of Oz and Other Stories, The Living House of Oz, "The Malevolent Mannequin in Oz," "The Great and Terrible Oz Mystery," and The Royal Explorers of Oz. Their origins feature prominently in the forthcoming book The Ancient Dawn of Oz.


Fuddlecumjig: A town of people who literally go to pieces any time they're slightly startled. This doesn't bother them so much because the other citizens of Oz, who apparently are the reason they fall apart, enjoy putting them back together. The Fuddles don't seem to mind this. "Button-Bright and the Knit-Wits of Oz" (Oziana 1987) introduces us to Grandpa Gnit, the husband of Grandmother Knit, who was once an ordinary citizen until she fell apart, and moved to Fuddlecumjig. This reveals that the Fuddles were once ordinary (or semi-ordinary) Oz citizens. Fuddlecumjig must be a place of psychological healing for those who fall apart too readily, just as Flutterbudget is a place for those who worry overmuch. Fuddlecumjig doesn't appear again in story until The Emerald City Mirror #57, where Dorothy takes Ozma and others to visit the Fuddles and meet the Lord High Chigglewitz and Grandmother Knit.


Invisible Barrier: On page 290, there is a discussion about potential future "wicked enemies" coming to Oz, and a concern that airships from the Outside World will discover Oz, and potentially invade it. While this might seem like a Flutterbudget fear, it leads Glinda to render Oz invisible to anyone outside Oz, effectively (if temporarily) cutting Oz off from the rest of the world and the Nonestican continent. It purportedly cut off Baum from serving as Royal Historian, but this was a problem that was later solved by use of the wireless. In time, just prior to Rinkitink in Oz, the invisible barrier is dropped. As noted in The Gardener's Boy of Oz, "since many of the immigrants from the outside world... had proven themselves good and valuable residents, while several of Ozma's most dangerous enemies... had been native Ozites, the little ruler had decided it was more trouble than it was worth to keep up the shield of invisibility, and had graciously permitted the history of her country to be shared with readers in the outside world." By the time of The Shaggy Man of Oz (see the notes for this entry for further details), however, the barrier is restored, likely in the wake of the events of The Magical Mimics in Oz.


The Magic Picture: As is true in Tik-Tok of Oz (written around the same time), the Magic Picture is revealed to have the capability of both picture and sound, as Ozma and her companions are able to listen to the Nome King make plans with the leader of the Phanfasms, Whimsies and Growleywogs. Merry Go Round in Oz, however, indicates that the Wizard's magic radio is needed to hear sound. It seems like that this is kept as an external device so that Ozma is not either perceived as, or guilty of spying on her friends and citizens.


Miss Cuttenclip: As revealed in The Magic Bowls of Oz, Miss Cuttenclip is not the only one to have gotten magic paper from Glinda. Her cousin, Aura Gammi, who once lived nearby (but now lives in the Red Jinn's palace in Ev) also gets magic paper from her. Aurra made Areo, the paper airplane, who Jinnicky enlarged.


The Nome Kingdom: The Nome King has 50,000 soldiers under him. Guph becomes his new general, but his indication that Glinda lives north of the Emerald City has to be seen as a mistake on his part. Guph appears again in The Hungry Tiger of Oz.


Pacifism: Oz has at this point become decidedly non-violent. Upon facing imminent destruction and/or enslavement by the Nomes, Growleywogs, Whimsies and Phanfasms, Ozma declares her new stance: "No one has the right to destroy any living creatures, however evil they may be, or to hurt them or make them unhappy. I will not fight−even to save my kingdom," and then, demonstrating that this stance is not cowardice (as she refuses to take Dorothy's offer of going to Kansas), she says "I would like to discover a plan to save ourselves without fighting." This development is new and demonstrates an evolution of Ozma's conception as to how Oz should be governed. It also informs her character for most of the rest of the series. Her stance on nonviolence is enlarged upon in the book Adolf Hitler in Oz.


Oz as Eutopia: Following on The Road to Oz, The Emerald City of Oz solidifies Baum's conception of his famous fairyland as an egalitarian realm under Ozma's policy of nonviolence. Economically and socially, there is no poor, and no money. "Each person was given freely by his neighbors whatever he required for his use... Each man and woman, no matter what he or she produced for the good of the community, was supplied by the neighbors with food and clothing and a house and furniture and ornaments and games. If by chance the supply ever ran short, more was taken from the great storehouses of the Ruler... Each one worked half the time and played half the time, and the people enjoyed the work as much as they did the play... There were no cruel overseers set to watch them, and no one to rebuke them or to find fault with them." There are farmers, tailors, dressmakers, shoemakers, jewelers and others who provide their goods to anyone who asks for them. "Each was proud to do all he could for his friends and neighbors." Socially, the people were variegated: "There were all sorts of queer characters among them, but not a single one who was evil, or who possessed a selfish or violent nature. They were peaceful, kind-hearted, loving and merry," and all loved Ozma. Even the animals are "for the most part harmless and even sociable." The Kalidahs who "had once been fierce and bloodthirsty," were "now nearly all tamed."


Oz Population: On page 29/30, Baum indicates that there are over half a million residents of Oz, 9,654 buildings and 57,318 residents in the Emerald City. Billina indicates that she has 86 sons and daughters (Daniels and Dorothys) and 300 grandchildren, and their numbers increase every day. While they are "never eaten or harmed in any way," Billina donates all the unfertilized eggs to the Emerald City. In The Royal Explorers of Oz, it is explained that to prevent population control Billina had all of her eggs (and offsprings' eggs) magically sterilized. Given that she has 7,000 offspring by the time of The Patchwork Girl of Oz, this likely means that a lot of chickens went off into various kingdoms and maybe even neighboring fairylands.


The Sawhorse was fitted with new sawdust brains by the Wizard, and is noted to have his feet shod with gold.


School: It is noteworthy that the students at Professor Wogglebug's college are made to learn Greek, Latin and "The Charge of the Light Brigade," an 1854 poem by Lord Tennyson about an English brigade during the Crimean War. These were common subjects in secondary school and college at the time, as English has their roots in them. Due to the fact that the Wogglebug has his students take the Wizard's Learning Pills to digest such subjects, Baum may have been engaging in satire, as he does with most of the places Dorothy and company visit. As regards those very pills, J.L. Bell notes, the "EMERALD CITY actually credits [the Wizard] with inventing Prof Wogglebug's pills (GLINDA credits the bug)." This would seem to indicate that both were involved in their invention. Perhaps the concept was the Wogglebug's and the execution the Wizard's.


Underground tunnel: Ozma closes up the tunnel, but as is discovered in later stories, such as The Shaggy Man of Oz, it is only the end of the tunnel under the Emerald City grounds that has been closed up as several characters are later able to go underground through the tunnel. This is explained in The Red Jinn in Oz when the Lion says to Dorothy that he believed Ozma had closed up the entire tunnel (as she said she was going to do), but Dorothy clarifies and tells him that Ozma only plugged up the end of the tunnel. This is likely because of what the Glow Worm Glim said: "Many of these [creatures] made their homes in the tunnel; and when I came, it was already crowded. Since then the tunnel has been greatly enlarged, and the side passages made for the benefit of those who wish to spend some of their time on the Earth's surface." Not wanting to disturb these creatures or the new homes they built in and around the tunnel, Ozma likely decided to leave it be, but close up the side on her end. As regards security risks, the tunnel is surrounded by a maze of passageways underground, making it hard to stay on the original tunnel.


The Wizard of Oz: Although Oscar practices real magic in this story, and has been doing so since The Road to Oz, he says to Dorothy, Aunt Em and Uncle Henry, on page 153: "When the Good Glinda found I was to live in the Emerald City always, she promised to help me, because she said the Wizard of Oz ought really to be a clever Wizard, and not a humbug. So we have been much together and I am learning so fast that I expect to be able to accomplish some really wonderful things in time." The Wizard was first approved to learn magic at Glinda's hands at the end of Oz and Three Witches, was sent to school in Ev, in "Ruggedo and the School of Magic," and completed his education from Glinda in "The Mysterious Palace of Voe." It took him about three years, from 1902 to 1905.







Aunt Em and Uncle Henry

Synopsis: During their arrival in Oz, Aunt Em and Uncle Henry recount their courtship and the circumstances which brought Dorothy to live with them.


Continuity Notes Revised version coming soon.






Ruggedo and the School of Magic

Available to read here!


Synopsis: Still angry at the loss of his Magic Belt, the Nome King Ruggedo decides to learn magic at an Evian University of Magic. This occurs at the same time the Wizard has been sent by Glinda to complete his studies, which is at the same academy. Although the Nome King goes in disguise, he inadvertently captures the attention of the Wizard who makes himself invisible in order to follow him. But the Nome King discovers and traps him in his realm, turning him into wood, which he knows the Magic Belt cannot undo.


The Scarecrow, having seen what occurred in the Magic Picture, rushes to awaken Ozma. Unable to bring him back by means of the Magic Belt, Ozma heads to Glinda's castle. Glinda discovers that the Belt has one jewel made of glass instead of diamond, and this may be the key to rescuing the Wizard!


Continuity Notes

Author's note (modified to reflect the new version): This story deals with the Nome King Ruggedo. In Ozma of Oz, Dorothy takes Roquat's Magic Belt, much to his anger and chagrin, and in The Emerald City of Oz, the Nome King explains that he lost all of his magic powers when he lost the Belt. In Tik-Tok of Oz, the Nome King known as Ruggedo by that time, has magical powers once again. This story tells how the Nome gained these powers, as well as how the Wizard of Oz, once a humbug, became an actual wizard. It takes place sometime in the middle of the Little Wizard Stories, just prior to ""Tik-Tok and the Nome King," and before "Ozma and the Little Wizard."


Dating: This story takes place over the course of two months, and just prior to the Little Wizard Story: "Tik-Tok and the Nome King."


The Wizard of Oz: Oscar Diggs was first approved to learn magic at Glinda's hands at the end of Oz and Three Witches, was sent to school in Ev, in this story, and completed his magical test from Glinda in "The Mysterious Palace of Voe." It took him about three years or so, from 1902 to 1905, to accomplish this.






Little Wizard Stories of Oz

Oz Book #47 of the Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five! This ninth Oz title from Baum is a compilation of six short stories originally published in mini-book editions in 1913 before finally being compiled as Little Wizard Stories of Oz.


The Cowardly Lion and the Hungry Tiger of Oz

Synopsis: Bored of their duties in the Emerald City, the Hungry Tiger and Cowardly Lion each propose to eat a fat baby and tear apart someone, and so improve their reputations and respect by appearing fierce. When the Hungry Tiger comes across a lost child, however, he comforts it; and when the Lion comes across the child's mother, he brings her to the child, and so both prove they're neither cruel nor fierce. "It's better to be a coward than to do wrong," says the Lion. "It's better to be hungry than to be cruel to a child," agrees the Tiger.


Continuity Notes Temptation will come to challenge the Lion and Tiger's commitment to non-cruelty again in their respective books, The Cowardly Lion of Oz and The Hungry Tiger of Oz.


Little Dorothy and Toto in Oz

Synopsis: Paying no heed to the Wizard's warnings about traveling unescorted through Oz, Dorothy and Toto travel into the Quadling country, and are there kidnapped by the giant Crinklink who forces Dorothy to wash all his dishes, threatening that for every dish she breaks, he will lash her with a whip. When he goes to sleep, Toto attacks him, only to discover that Crinklink is really the Wizard in disguise. The Wizard says he was teaching Dorothy a lesson.


Continuity Notes Dorothy seems to have embraced Ozma's pacifism, and when given the option to kill Crinklink says, "I couldn't poss'bly kill anythingeven to save my life."


This is a revised version of Baum's original story, as requested by his editor Sumner Britton. In the original, Crinklink is an actual sorcerer. When he's shrunk down, Toto eats him! (For more details, see Martin Gardener's introduction to the Shocken edition of Little Wizard Stories of Oz.)


Tik-Tok and the Nome King of Oz

Synopsis: The Wizard sends Tik-Tok to the Nome King to attain new parts. Once there, however, the Nome King gets mad and throws his mace at the Clockwork Man, breaking him into pieces. Frightened by what he'd done, the Nome King orders Kaliko to throw Tik-Tok into the Black Pit, and hides in his room for two weeks. During that time, Kaliko fixes Tik-Tok, but when the newly repaired Clockwork Man appears before the Nome King, he runs away in terror, fearing that a ghost has come to torment him.


Continuity Notes story demonstrates that there's peace between the Nome King's underground kingdom and Oz. This period of peace is also demonstrated in the Oziana 1991 story "Mission Impozible: Revenge of the Emerald Grasshopper." Baum also correctly situates the Nome King's domain west of Oz. The Nomes also use a form of currency called a "specto."


Ozma and the Little Wizard of Oz

Synopsis: As Ozma and the Wizard journey to visit "all parts of the country," they encounter three mischievous imps, Olite, Udent and Ertinent. When one of them pushes Ozma and the Wizard to the ground and kicks dust on them, the Wizard transforms them into bushes. But with magic of their own, the bushes move to prick them with their thorns, after which the Wizard transforms them into pigs. Yet, the pigs run them over, pushing the Wizard into a river. He then transforms them into doves, which fly at them, trying to peck their eyes out and biting Ozma's ear. Finally, the Wizard transforms them into buttons of tin, brass and lead, which the Wizard plans to sew unto his coat until they repent, which will be evidenced by a change of tin to silver, brass to gold and lead to aluminum.



Dating: No internal dates are provided. The journey Ozma and the Wizard are on represents a lengthy journey that could reasonably take months. What other adventures they encountered during this time are as yet unrecorded, but unless they called it short, which they might have given the circumstances, there may have been many. The Royal Timeline of Oz places this in 1906.


Sequel: The Imps repent years later and return in The Three Imps of Oz, which connects their race to the Ruby Imp, from (Rosine and) The Laughing Dragon of Oz.


Jack Pumpkinhead and the Sawhorse of Oz

Synopsis: When Ozma spies in the Magic Picture a lost boy and girl, she sends Jack Pumpkinhead upon the Sawhorse to rescue the children. But the Squirrel King is unwilling to release them, believing they stole the nuts they'd saved up for winter. Jack believes the kids, who says he only ate them to keep from going hungry, and unties them. But a falling limb from a tree smashes his pumpkin head, rendering him unable to see or speak. The Sawhorse has the children gather Jack's body, after which he rides them away, but he soon gets lost. Ozma then sends the Wizard and Cowardly Lion to find them. Together they restore the children to their home, and head back to Jack's house, where the Wizard picks and carves a new pumpkin head for Jack.


Continuity Notes Why Ozma doesn't use the Magic Belt to simply restore the children, or Jack, is a puzzle, but as indicated in "Ruggedo and the School of Magic," the Belt has limitations and idiosyncrasies that are still being worked out by the time of The Magic of Oz. The Squirrel King returns to cause more trouble in The Lavender Bear of Oz.


The Scarecrow and the Tin Woodman of Oz

Synopsis: The Scarecrow and Tin Woodman decide to take a boat ride on the river. When the boat hits a rock, the Tin Woodman falls and sinks to the bottom of the river. When the Scarecrow attempts to dive in to rescue him, he manages to get his face wet and accidentally wipes away one of his painted eyes. King Crow laughs at the Scarecrow, but agrees to help get him out if the Scarecrow can tie a line to him. The Tin Woodman ties a fishing line to himself, and the birds seize the cord and drag him and the Scarecrow (tied to the line) out and into the air, leaving the friends suspended in a tree. Finally, the Wizard and Sawhorse come along, and rescue the friends, restoring them to their boat.


Continuity Notes This is an entirely revised story which was requested by the editor Sumner Britton. The original is unfortunately lost. The idea of the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman enjoying boat rides carries through their lives, and features in the book, The Ozmapolitan of Oz.







The Secret Island of Oz

History: Adventures in Oz (where this story was collected) is considered Book 54 in the Sovereign Sixty (and Supreme Seventy-Five)!


Synopsis: When the Scarecrow and Dorothy find the Royal Gardener crying by a pond in the Royal Gardens, he explains that every kind of fish in Oz is represented in the pond, but one, the Crimson-Tailed Quipperug, a shy fish found in a pool in the Quadling Forest by the Mysterious Mountain. As none of his assistants can tend the gardens as well as he, he's unable to, so Dorothy and the Scarecrow volunteer to go for him.


Informing Ozma of their intentions, the Cowardly Lion warns them that terrible sounds emit from the top of the mountain, and no beast or bird will go near it. Dorothy invites him along, and he figures it will give him a chance to check in on his kingdom. Billina says she would accompany them, but one of her chicks has the flu. The Wizard gives Dorothy his new Traveling Emergency Magical Kit, which she can test for him. It includes various powders and a magic wayfinder.


The next morning, they come to the mountain and pool, where the Lion puts his head underwater to summon the fish. The fish don't know exactly where to find the reclusive quipperug, but will help guide them. Eureka shows up, bored at the Emerald City and trying to catch a fish, but Dorothy scolds her, and agrees to let her come if she behaves. A giant fish surfaces, opening its mouth for the travelers to enter. When it submerges, it blows a large air bubble, allowing them breathe underwater. The pool is much larger than it looks, going under the mountain. They direct the fish by means of the magic wayfinder, but a giant whirlpool causes the fish to lose its grip on the bubble, which is drawn into the whirlpool, popping it.


Dorothy and Eureka wind up on an island inside the bottom of the whirlpool, which is inside the Mysterious Mountain. With the wayfinder, they follow a path that should lead them to their friends, but they instead come upon a princess scolding a wooden puppet for bringing her out to play. After she storms off, Dorothy introduces herself and explains that she needs to find a way out. Knotboy says he'll help her find her friends, after which the king might be able to help them get out. The wooden boy explains that he was made by the Royal Inventor to be a playmate for Princess Trinkarinkarina, who had no other children to play with. They loved each other at first, but as she grew older she began to grow apart from him, not wanting to play anymore.


The princess spies Knotboy with the strangers and follows them to a circular brick building, which has a locked door. Eureka suggests they use the Wizard's powder of intangibility to enter. It works, and they find a hill inside the circular room, which Eureka reports is hollow on top, leading to an underground tunnel. Princess Trin enters behind them, scolding Knotboy for breaking the law, but Dorothy just takes him with her into the tunnel. It ends up at a pond. The princess bursts in, but Dorothy has had enough of her, and during the ensuing argument, Knotboy is accidentally knocked into the pool. Yet, he reveals that it's really not water, but a passage to another cavern and tunnel.


The Scarecrow and Cowardly Lion had, meanwhile, ended up on the bank in a different location on the island. All they have left is some of the Wizard's powders, including one for a seven-course breakfast (which the Lion takes) and a shrinking powder. Coming upon a hill topped by a giant frog, they're approached by a giant snake.  The Frog invites them to a contest, but the Lion doesn't like it. On the promise that if the Lion wins, he'll show them the way out, the Scarecrow agrees. The first part is a race, which the snake cheats at and wins. The second is a rock crushing contest, which the snake might have won had the Scarecrow not put exploding powder on the Lion's rock. The third is a wrestling match, but Knotboy then bursts through the bottom of the hill, pushing the giant frog off. Dorothy and the others emerge too, glad to find her friends, but the giant snake sees the magic powder in the Scarecrow's hands and strikes at him, tearing him up. The Lion attacks the snake while Dorothy puts shrinking powder on him. When the princess emerges, the frog grabs her with his tongue and hops off. Knotboy follows. The Lion finishes off the now-shrunken snake, and races off with Dorothy and Eureka. Knotboy emerges in a giant mushroom forest. When the frog spots him, he shoots out his tongue, but the wooden boy wraps it around a strong mushroom. He and the princess run off, meeting up with Dorothy's party, who rush back to the hill and restuff the Scarecrow. But some of the shrinking powder had gotten on the hill, and it's shrunken. Knotboy remembers the intangibility powder, and with it they escape into the tunnel just as the frog leaps in, but too late, as only his head makes it through before the effect of it runs out.


Dorothy introduces everyone, and Trin apologizes to Knotboy for her behavior. When they all emerge up the tunnel, the king and his guards are waiting there, but she explains what's been going on, and how Knotboy saved her. The king doesn't know how the travelers can leave, but the Scarecrow has an idea. The king concedes and invites them to a feast.


The next day, Trin and Knotboy come to say goodbye and to thank them for reuniting them. In a boat provided by the king, Dorothy and the others ride it up the waterfall until it reaches the top, where they all have to make a perilous leap to the edge before the boat crashes. Successful, they now realize the frightening sound of the mountain was the waterfall. At the mountains' bottom, they again go to the pool, and there the Crimson-tailed Quipperug is waiting for them. Dorothy invites him to live in the most luxurious city in the world, but the rare fish explains that he's a wild fish that doesn't want to live in captivity or be gawked at by strangers. Eureka's pleased that they didn't catch a fish either.


Continuity Notes

Dating: No explicit date is given, but there are clues in the narrative as to when it might take place. The most telling is that Billina's chick has the flu. Prior to The Emerald City of Oz, her chick had caught a cold and died of the pip. Yet, in chapter 3 of that same book it's noted, "No disease of any sort was ever known among the Ozites, and so no one ever died unless he met with an accident that prevented him from living." That one of Billina's chicks gets a cold likely indicates this take place a short time after The Emerald City of Oz. This is bolstered by Jellia Jamb's exclamation about how many inventions the Wizard has been working on since he became a real Wizard under Glinda's tutelage. Such a line wouldn't make sense decades after the fact. Additionally, the Cowardly Lion talks about his kingdom as if it were still his. But by the time of The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz, he had left it in the hands of a Kalidah as regent. Even Eureka's behavior seems closer to her personality in the early years of having come to live in Oz. In a similar vein, there is no Trot, Betsy or any of the characters that later come to stay in Oz. The Royal Timeline of Oz places it in 1906, a year after Dorothy comes to live in Oz in The Emerald City of Oz, but in which she doesn't have many recorded adventures (as she notes early in the story that she hasn't had one in awhile).


Knotboy: Invented by the Royal Inventor roughly ten or so years ago when the Princess was a young girl. It's not known how Knotboy was brought to life, or if the Royal Inventor had some Powder of Life or other magic at his disposal. There appear to be no other living constructs on the island, and unless he knows a way in and out of the island, this remains a mystery.


Secret Island: No information is provided as to how long the islanders have lived there, or how or when they first arrived, and the king appears to have no knowledge as to how to get off the island, though the Scarecrow might have shown him a way. Dorothy says she'll see them again, but there is no recorded story of this. Their ancestors might have enchanted the island to hide it and themselves, or they might have stumbled upon it a different way. There is no explanation as to why the king seals off the building that leads to other parts of the island. While it may have been fear of the giant frog and snake that live in one section, it may also be that it leads out of the island. As with Knotboy, much remains untold.






Four Views of General Jinjur

Available to read here!


Synopsis: Four women speak about the former general of the Army of Revolt, Jinjur: her mother Meric (a Munchkin pickle farmer), her friend Esmay (a Winkie architect and former Captain in the Army of Revolt), Mombi, and Ozma.


Continuity Notes

Husband: Mombi and Ozma confirm that Jinjur is now separated from her husband, Mr. Popp (first noted in Oziana 2005's "Jinjur's Journal"), for whom she was married since 1901 (indicating a four-or-five year period in which she was married.) By 1945, Jinjur has reconciled with her husband (Adolf Hitler in Oz), but for many years is not indicated. The story "Tommy Kwikstep and the Magpie" indicates that she had a boy named Perry, who grew to be an older teen, and a girl, Winnie, who appears in "Vaneeda of Oz," and who chose to remain ten years old. Perry also appears in the revised/expanded edition of The Haunted Castle of Oz.


Munchkin King: Ozma indicates that the Munchkin King who appeared during Ozma of Oz and The Road to Oz was a pretender to the throne, neither of Cheeriobed's line, nor of the Seebanian kings (Unc Nunkie's line). He is revealed in "Vaneeda of Oz" to be a man named Froom.








The Hollyhock Dolls in Oz

Synopsis: Spying a family making Hollyhock dolls, the Brownies take the dolls and bring them to life, making them their wives. But while the Brownies are away, the dolls venture out too early in the year, and find themselves buried in snow. Upon their return, the Brownies are grieved to discover their wives dead. So, traveling to the Last Secret Mound to see the Shamaness before the Great Pool of Life, they petition for the life of their dead wives. As the key to restoring the dead Hollyhock dolls is to have their original maker sprinkle a magic powder on them, the Shamaness sends the Brownies to Oz, where Aunt Em, their original maker, is currently living.


Em is, meanwhile, feeling useless, and decides to talk to the Good Witch of the North, who has recently retired. Dorothy, Toto and the Cowardly Lion join her. En route, they encounter the Melon Collie, a sad dog whose pups have been abducted by the Manitas of Funglade, who arrest anyone who's not happy. Toto's antics cause the pups and everyone else to smile, allowing their release.


A more serious threat comes with the Grave Robbers, a group of bandits who work for the Goblin Hood, a faceless entity who steals the worst character traits of his victims, and devours them. Thanks to the Sawhorse and quick-thinking of the group, they escape and make their way to the town of Ogoshen, where they find the Good Witch of the North.


In the meantime, Uncle Henry, the Hungry Tiger, and the Brownies (who Glinda sent to the Emerald City) head North, and wind up in the town of Egglet, where they expect to find edible eggs, but instead meet Queen Eglantine and a community of sapient eggs laid by the Great Hen. A white supremacist, who disagrees with her equal treatment of brown eggs, breaks the queen's shell, prompting Henry to ask the Brownies to use their magic to repair her. The eggs destroy the villain, which grieves the queen, but she allows the Hungry Tiger to eat them, along with ham from the local ham tree.


Meanwhile Ozma, Glinda and the Wizard look into the threat posed by the Goblin and his robbers. Goblin Hood discerns that the worst traits of these are insecurity, pride and guilt, and devours them. Freed of these traits, the three don't hesitate to destroy Goblin Hood. With his death, all the traits he'd swallowed over the years are released, including his destroyers who feel guilty about their actions. The Grave Robbers, former victims of his, petition to stay in Oz.


Both of these groups converge in Ogoshen, where Aunt Em assists the Brownies in bringing her old dolls back to life. The Good Witch of the North also assists Dorothy in bringing two new Ozlyhock Dolls to life after Ozma exempts her from the law prohibiting the practice of magic.


At the big party at the Emerald City, Ozma invites the Brownies to life in Oz, which they accept. As they aren't sure where to live, they agree with their resurrected wives and the Ozlyhock Dolls to accompany Dorothy, Toto, Em, Henry, Melon Collie and her pups, the Lion, Tiger and Sawhorse on a journey to Henry and Em's original Kansas house, now situated in the Munchkin country where the cyclone had brought it. (Meanwhile, the Tin Woodman and Scarecrow invite Scraps to the Tin Castle for the first time.)


After the Wizard provides her with a skeleton key they head off and encounter the former Deadly Poppy Field, which Ozma had some of General Jinjur's Army of Revolt remove in the first few years of her reign, leaving only small patches of poppies, and giving the rest to the Quadling farmers. Brown Moth and Little Nell wander off after a ladybug and are nearly eaten by a fawn when the Queen of the Field Mice rescues them and invites them into her domain. Finally, Dorothy calls them and she escorts them out to the surface. They come to a bridge that Ozma also built to replace the old one, and they cross it to meet the residents of Herville, which are made up of members of the Army of Revolt, led by Brigadier Tanjrine.


The party next head to the home of the Munchkin mayor Boq and his wife Johanna, who tell Em that their former house is now a shrine, and a haunted one. The door is still locked, as neither Dorothy, Em or Henry have visited it until now. Em finds her old books (Uncle Tom's Cabin, Robin Hood, The Old Curiosity Shop and The Wonders of the Natural World), while the Ozlyhock dolls venture into the surrounding grass and discover that several weeds and vegetables have been brought to life by the creatures haunting the house. They soon discover that these are the living remnants of the crushed body of the Wicked Witch of the East. With the help of the Brownies, they ensnare the Wicked Witch Weeds, who Ozma decides to settle in a small kingdom of their own, guarded by the former Grave Robbers, who will live outside it. Em and Henry decide to build a farmhouse in the country, outside of which the Brownies, their wives, Ozlyhock Dolls and Melon Collie agree to live as well.


Continuity Notes

Boq: Boq first appeared in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. He and his wife Johanna appear again in Bucketheads in Oz.


Dating: The story begins in February, but continues into spring, likely in the year 1863, as it's noted to be Indiana and "big guns" are booming in the south. The only time this could have happened was Morgan's raid in July 1963. This is also when Aunt Em is a young girl. The narrative then jumps ahead several decades to 1905, specifically the time between The Patchwork Girl of Oz and Tik-Tok of Oz.


Deadly Poppy Field: As of a few years into Ozma's reign, the Deadly Poppy Field is no more. Only scattered poppies were allowed to remain, as other wildflowers were brought in to take their place.


Emily: This is the only tale of Aunt Em's childhood in Indiana, and she's noted as having married Henry when she was 16.


Crossovers: Story brings Brownies and Native-American Fairies (as distinct from European fairies) into the Ozian mythology. Brownies (at least this group) are residents of the mortal world.


Dorothy's House: Uncle Henry and Aunt Em's old farmhouse, which had blow to Oz with Dorothy in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, is now a shrine in the Munchkin country, complete with statues of the participants in the field outside. Neither Em or Henry had been to visit it until the time of this story, and the house had remained locked since Dorothy's first visit to the house in the Oziana 1989 story "There's No Place Like Oz." The weedy remnants of the Wicked Witch of the East's crushed body haunted the house until this time.


General Jinur: The remnants of her former Army of Revolt which didn't go back to their previous lives established the community of Herville under Brigadier Tanjrine, who explains that Jinjur sacrificed herself by marrying a man who agreed with their ideals, but who was somewhat of a nuisance (which explains Jinjur's later separation from him in "Four Views of General Jinjur").


Goblin Hood: Glinda says that Goblin Hood began as a sad or bad thought which grew into an obsession, and escaped (or outlived) its original host.


Good Witch of the North: Tattypoo goes into retirement following the announcement that Ozma has passed the law forbidding magic. This changes when Ozma comes to visit her, urging her out of retirement, and giving her a rare exemption to the law.


Great Pool of Life: Found deep under the Last Secret Mound, it is magically connected to the Great Book of Records, and allows the unnamed Shamaness to directly contact Glinda.


Great Shamaness: Unnamed in this story, but a good candidate would be Zauberlinda the Wise Witch from the book of the same name.


Law against Magic: Ozma agrees to re-think the law prohibiting magic, and makes an exemption in the case of the Good Witch of the North. Ozma doesn't revise the law until several decades later, and then once more, two decades after that. See The Ban on Magic in the Appendices for more details.


Magic Belt: Is present but not used, as Ozma says she prefers to do things naturally wherever possible.


Melon Collie: This animal is first mentioned in a poem spoken by Percy Vere the Forgetful Poet in chapter 14 of Grampa in Oz.


Red Wagon: Ozma's Red Wagon has a counterpart built by the Wizard called the Green Sulky. While this is rarely seen used, it makes sense that they would have more than one means of locomotion.







Tik-Tok of Oz

The 8th Oz book of the Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!


History: The narrative was inspired by the play The Tik-Tok Man of Oz, which Baum and composer Manuel Klein began working on in 1909, and which was itself based on (and called) Ozma of Oz. Certain characters and details were subsequently changed for the book, such as Betsy to replace Dorothy, and Ozga to replace Ozma. There is no Quox in the original. Also, much of the dialogue (which was often sung) is reduced in the book version. Nevertheless, the substance of the story remains the same and must be dated to that year or prior.


Synopsis: Bored of life in her uneventful kingdom, Queen Ann of Oogaboo decides to gather an army of 17 generals, majors and lieutenants, and one private, Jo Files, to take over Oz. Reading of this in her Great Book of Records, Glinda simply spirits them to the continent outside the Deadly Desert. Once there, Queen Ann and her men encounter a Rak, a dragon-like creature, but Jo Files manages to temporarily hinder the creature.


Meanwhile, Betsy Bobbin from Oklahoma and Hank the Mule are shipwrecked, and end up on the shores of the Rose Kingdom, where Betsy discovers a greenhouse of sapient roses with the faces of girls. The Royal Gardener tells them that the penalty for intrusion in Roseland is death, but the Shaggy Man crashes into the greenhouse, and shows him the magic Love Magnet that he carries.


Shaggy explains that he's looking for his brother, who he finds out had disappeared in a Colorado mine 10 years earlier (1895). When the Gardener gives them a tour of the Rose Garden, where all the royals are growing, but yet green, Betsy spots a beautiful princess who is ripe. The royal rose bushes, however, will not allow a female to rule over them, but Betsy and the Shaggy Man pick her anyway, and she comes to life. It is discovered that she is Ozga, a fairy cousin of Ozma. Shaggy lends her the love magnet, but it fails to work on her subjects because they have no hearts (not unlike the Mangaboos from Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz).


As they agree to help the Shaggy Man find his brother, they travel on and discover Polychrome whose fallen off her rainbow again. Poly agrees to help them find the entrance to the Nome King's dominion, and reveals that once Ozga was exiled from her Rose Kingdom, she ceased being a fairy and has become a mere mortal. On their journey, they find Tik-Tok down a well, which is where Ruggedo threw him. Tik-Tok informs them that Ozma sent him to tell them that indeed the Shaggy Man's brother is a prisoner of Ruggedo.


The travelers next run into Queen Ann's army, but when Ann orders Private Files to bind them, he resigns his position and befriends them. The Shaggy Man's Love Magnet causes Queen Ann and her army to cease hostilities, and together they head for the Nome King's dominions to conquer, the direction of which Ozga discovered from the flowers. Across the Rubber Country and dry-water channel they head, but they're soon spotted by Kaliko, and heard by the Long-Eared Hearer, who tells Ruggedo that Queen Ann plans to plunder his kingdom. In a rage, Ruggedo orders the entrance to the Hollow Tube made invisible, and as a result the adventurers fall through the earth into the realm of Tititi-Hoochoo on the other side of the world.


Over there, they meet Tubekins and other invisible inhabitants of Tititi-Hoochoo's country, who soon reveal themselves to be the beautiful kings and queens of the realm. They are equal, but bow to their ruler, the Private Citizen. When he is revealed as Tititi-Hoochoo, the Great Jin Jin, the party become afraid (except Betsy), but he agrees that the Nome King is to blame and will be punished.


Erma, the Queen of Light takes Betsy and Poly to her crystal palace to be entertained, while the King of Animals takes Hank. Betsy and Poly meet the Messengers of Light: Sunlight, Moonlight, Starlight, Daylight, Firelight and Electra. Erma explains to Betsy that this land is "one of the chief residences of fairies who minister to the needs of mankind." So as to avoid rivalry, and because Tititi-Hoochoo was "the only important personage... who had no duties to mankind," he was elected as their ruler. Yet, he has no heart, but a high degrees of reason and justice.


Erma then tells Betsy that "the dragon was the first living creature ever made," and the oldest and wisest of all living things. The Original Dragon was the first resident in that land, and still resides there, supplying them with wisdom.


The next day, the Great Jinjin agrees to send the travelers back through the Hollow Tube with Quox as the Nome King's Instrument of Vengeance. Quox is also being punished for having been disrespectful to the Original Dragon. Once they're on the other side, Queen Ann determines that she and her army will conquer the Nome King, but Ruggedo has them thrown into a dungeon. Next Betsy and Hank are captured, but Kaliko feels bad for them and hides them in his room. Tik-Tok attempts to defeat the Nome King, but Ruggedo has a large diamond placed on top of him. The Shaggy Man then enters to show Ruggedo the Love Magnet, but having overheard his plans, he is bound along with Jo Files and Ozga.


Polychrome, however, is too quick to catch, and though the Nome King implores her to stay with him as either his daughter, wife, aunt or mother, she rebukes him. In anger, Ruggedo uses his magic to turn Shaggy into a dove and Ozga into a fiddle. Then he requests his prisoners brought before him to torture. Poly runs out to find Quox, who is asleep. She awakens him, and he enters the Nome King's domain with the power of the ribbon the Great Jinjin gave him for this very purpose, and it robs Ruggedo of his magic. Quox then opens a case and releases eggs which magically chase Ruggedo from his throne and out of the Nome Kingdom, where he is banished. Quox disenchants Shaggy and Ozga, who say goodbye to him as departs through the Tube back to his realm.


Polychrome spies Ruggedo entering the secret way to the Metal Forest, a vast underground realm created by the Nomes where the trees are made of gold, the bushes of silver, the pathways of diamonds, and the floor of various jewels and gems. Unable to find Queen Ann or her army, Kaliko, Polychrome, Shaggy, Files and Ozga follow Ruggedo into the forest and discover Queen Ann and her army. They'd found a hidden passage from the dungeon to the Metal Forest. Ruggedo fills his pockets with jewels and departs, after which Kaliko leads the travelers to the natural part of the forest where the Shaggy Man's brother (who they call the Ugly One) has been living for three years.


Shaggy's brother, however, doesn't want to come out of his hut because the Nome King had magically turned him ugly to punish him before banishing him to the Metal Forest. There, he had found trees that provided three-course meals and breakfasts. With a handkerchief from his brother covering his face, the "Ugly One" reluctantly joined the travelers.


Kaliko allowed Queen Ann and her army to gather jewels on their way out of the Metal Forest, but upon departure, they discover Ruggedo, who had stuffed so many gems his pockets burst. Dejected and humbled, Betsy shames him into helping restore Shaggy's original appearance. Repentant of his past actions, he tries, but can only remember that a kiss from a mortal maid, former fairy, or fairy will help. Betsy tries, then Ozga, but both to no avail. Finally, Polychrome's kiss restores him.


Feeling sorry for the former Nome King, Betsy asks Ruggedo if he's sorry, which he says he is. Kaliko then allows him to stay underground with the caveat that he behave himself. After Polychrome departs for the rainbow, which appears in the sky, Queen Ann and her people fervently wish to go home. Ozma hears this on the Magic Picture, as she had been following their progress, and has the Wizard spirit Private Files and Ozga, along with Queen Ann and her army to Oogaboo.


She then uses a "wireless telephone" to contact the Shaggy Man (who also has one). He has vowed not to abandon his brother or Betsy, and so will wander the world with them. Ozma consults with the Wizard, Dorothy and Tik-Tok (who the Wizard transports to the Palace), who agree to have them invited to Oz. Ozma counters that "the Land of Oz is not a refuge for all mortals in distress," and that the Shaggy Man's brother, as nice as he is, has done nothing to entitle himself to live in Oz. But as no one cares to lose Shaggy, and Dorothy wishes a playmate who is not as busy as Ozma generally is, and as there is yet plenty of room in Oz, Ozma has the Wizard transport them to the palace.


Hank finds himself in the Royal Stable and suddenly able to speak. Greeting the Cowardly Lion, Hungry Tiger and Sawhorse, they soon get into a disagreement over which girl is the sweetest, Betsy, Dorothy or Ozma, at which point the girls appear and scold the animals for fighting over them. Ozma proclaims that "Our Land of Oz is a Land of Love, and here friendship outranks ever other quality." The animals accept this and become friends. When Betsy asks Dorothy if all the animals can talk, Dorothy says all but Toto because he's from Kansas, to which Ozma responds that Toto can talk, just as Billina, Eureka and Hank (who are all from the Outside World) can, but has chosen not to. At this Dorothy calls over Toto, and tells him to prove to her that he can talk, which, reluctantly, he does before running off.


Continuity Notes

Betsy Bobbin: Betsy Bobbin's home state is revealed as Oklahoma. Time Traveling in Oz indicates that her home town was Lone Grove (in Carter County). He parents are later discovered to be alive and well in the novella "Betsy Bobbin of Oz," from the book Two Terrific Tales of Oz. She appears as a minor character throughout the Oz series, but has a starring role in The Hungry Tiger of Oz.


Dating: Tik-Tok of Oz occurs over the course of 13 days (see the Day-to-Day Chronology for details), possibly in the Fall. Because it is based on the 1909 The Tik-Tok Man of Oz play, it must take place prior to 1909. There had been an issue of it needing to also take place prior to Rinkitink in Oz since Kaliko is the Nome King in the latter story—a book that was originally written in 1905—however, with the publication of King Rinkitink, which restores Baum's original vision of Roquat as the Nome King at this time, there is no longer any need to place it before or in 1905. (This is not unprecedented, and seems to be closer to what Baum may have had in mind anyway, as Baum hints in the pumpkin graveyard in The Road to Oz, which dates the time from The Marvelous Land of Oz to The Road to Oz as a year and ten months.) Tik-Tok of Oz can, thus, place a year or two later, but no later than 1909.


Discrepancies and Mistakes:

1. Baum again errs (as he did in The Emerald City of Oz), in saying that Glinda and her castle are north of Oz, when they're established in the Quadling lands in the south (which is even shown on his map in this very book).


2. Once again, it's stated that the Sawhorse is the only horse in Oz (first stated in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz), though this time it is the Sawhorse who proclaims it, which may be his perspective. Both the Cowardly Lion and Tip are familiar with horses, and later Oz books show plenty of them.


3. A common contradiction cited is that of Polychrome and the Shaggy Man who act as if they hadn't met before (which they did in The Road to Oz). Their interchange, however, reveals more of the absence of greeting than an outright contradiction. They don't reintroduce themselves, and Polychrome knows the Shaggy Man's name. One further indication that Baum hadn't forgotten that they'd met before is a few paragraphs earlier where Poly says "This is the second time my carelessness has left me on Earth." So, what seems to be the case is that Baum missed adding an additional sentence/paragraph where Poly and Shaggy say hello, and Shaggy asks her what she's doing back on the ground. Similarly, Baum leaves out Betsy's conversation with the Shaggy Man, as it's he who informs the readers that she's from Oklahoma.


4. Despite his time in Ev, Hank the Mule seems unable to speak until he gets to Oz, which seems to indicate that animals don't speak in Oz. This was different for Billina who (in Ozma of Oz) was able to speak immediately upon reaching Ev, as well as for Jim the Cabhorse, Eureka, and the Nine Tiny Piglets, all who were able to speak prior to arriving in Oz. This discrepancy can be explained in the same way that Toto's is explained, namely that Hank doesn't think to try until he's in Oz.

Electra: What relationship Electra has to the Demon of Electricity has not been explored, but it does appear that the six Messengers of Light are actual avatars for the different light sources on earth, but not meant to be the actual sources themselves (as Erma mentions "the moon being hidden behind the earth's rim" and that the skies lend Starlight her power).


Hiergargo and the Hollow Tube: The Hollow Tube was "burrowed and built" in the year 19625401 by a magician named Hiergargo, a name that refers to a kind of evil high-priest and likely indicates a dragon given that An is the realm of the oldest dragons. The etymology of "gargo" is cunning, crafty, malicious and in the Proto-Celtic, a horror. It is closely associated with the Greek gorgo, origin of the serpent-headed Gorgons, and the Sanskrit garg (garga), which is a roar or growl, and is the root of the French gargouille (gargoyle). "Hier," of course means powerful, supernatural, sacred. That Hiergargo says he "burrowed" the hole also lends an animalistic aspect to the picture. Tititi-Hoochoo calls the Tube's creation a foolish decision, particularly since it led to the explosion of a star when the magician first went through it (there is no word as to whether Hiergargo survived it). The year, which on face value amounts to nearly two billion years ago, seems improbable in Baum's mythology, though it is an ancient description and might be interpreted in light of ancient cultures, such as the Sumerians, who used a number system that was sexagesimal (based on 60) and a lunar calendar system. If so, this would bring Hiergargo's construction of the Tube to 27,257 BCE, approximately 7,000 years earlier than the Green Dragon of Atlantis (who the dragonettes claim ruled in 20,000 BC), as noted in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz. A better option is that it indicates a year, month, day and time, which brings us to 19,625 BC, even closer to the age of the dragons. The Hollow Tube itself is a called a black hole in The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz, and indeed, its connection from one side of the globe to the other appears to indicate something far more than a mundane "burrowing." It seems probably that Hiergargo discovered or utilized a magic portal and built around it. As hinted in this book, and revealed in The Law of Oz and Other Stories, the tunnel is capable of moving to different locations.


Hotel Trees: The food-bearing trees in the Metal Forest are established in The Blue Emperor of Oz to have been created by the Wizard Wam, and stolen by Ruggedo and brought into his underground realm.


Land of An: Baum did not originally name the realm of Tititi-Hoochoo. As revealed in The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz and The Law of Oz and Other Stories, the originally unnamed land of the Original Dragon, Tititi-Hoochoo and the fairy kings and queens is called at this time The Empire of the Fairy Fellowship, but it is only part of the Land of An, which had been bifurcated in 1764 and is restored two hundred years later in 1964. As revealed in The Gardener's Boy of Oz, there are three entrances to this realm: 1. the tunnel of Hiergargo, 2. the fence from the land of the Sour Notes, and 3. a great bottomless fissure. This land is deemed by Flora, the Queen of Gardens, as more important to humanity than Oz because "most of the fairies who govern natural phenomena, from electric storms and tides to koala bears and snapdragons, lived here at least part of their time."


Magic: The text doesn't specify how Glinda diverts Ann and her army across the Deadly Desert, and there is no indication that she spirited them there (which they would have noticed). One suggestion made by Ruth Berman is that Glinda opened up the Nome King's tunnel, and routed them through it, though it's clear from The Red Jinn in Oz that Ozma only ever closed up the tunnel entrance on her side. So, it may be that Glinda either magically routed them through the tunnel or found some other undisclosed means to get them across the Deadly Desert.


The Magic Picture: As was first revealed in The Emerald City of Oz, the Magic Picture is capable of reproducing sound, which is how Ozma is able to hear Queen Ann's wish to go home. There may be a separate device, however, that enables this as there are times when sound does not seem to function.


The Nome King: The Nome King is no longer named Roquat, but Ruggedo, which as noted in a footnote is the new name he chose after losing his memory. The story of how this occurs, as well as how the Nome King remembered his missing Magic Belt is told in the Oziana 2004 story "Evrob and the Nomes." Ruggedo also has magic powers, which he did not have in Ozma of Oz. Kaliko says Ruggedo "learned a good many enchantments that we Nomes know nothing about." The story of this is told in "Ruggedo and the School of Magic." His magic is taken away by Tititi-Hoochoo.


Oogaboo: Queen Ann notes (in chapter 1) that there are 90 people living in Oogaboo: "eighteen men, twenty-seven women and forty-four children."  The further adventures of Queen Ann and Oogaboo are revealed in Queen Ann in Oz and its sequel Jodie in Oz. Queen Ann and Oogaboo also feature in the deluxe edition of Adolf Hitler in Oz and The Glass Cat of Oz.


Oz Books: Betsy knows of Oz, Ozma and Dorothy, but has not heard of the Nome King. This is an indication that she's read some of the Oz books, and, appropriately, NOT Ozma of Oz, which wasn't published until 1907, two years after this story takes place. This is in keeping with Baum's ideas that his books are records of historical events that have taken place in Oz, something which those in the Outside World generally believe to be a fiction, but which some believe is true.


Ozga: The question as to why a fairy-princess and cousin of Ozma is growing in the Rose Kingdom is not answered by Baum. The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1 explains that "Ozma had a fairy cousin who was turned into a rosebush, which then spawned both the Rose Rulers & the talking rosebushes before he was found and disenchanted by Lurline." See the Rose Kingdom entry below for more details. This explains how Ozga is able to "converse" with the plants and flowers who point her in the direction of the Nome's underground kingdom. Another mystery that's more difficult to explain is why Ozga ceased to be a fairy simply because of being exiled from the Rose Kingdom. Yet, as the last Rose Ruler withered and died, necessitating that he be replanted, so too does Ozga, an event that's noted in the 2014 revised edition of Adolf Hitler in Oz. Ozga goes on to marry Private Files. Her additional power restoring plants is revealed in Thorns and Private Files in Oz.


Polychrome: Polychrome notes that she is thousands of years old, and that the Rain King is her uncle. This has led to the conclusion that her father, the Rainbow, is the brother of the Rain King.


Predictions: Baum predicts the cell-phone by over seventy years.


Quox: This is the dragon Quox's first appearance, though chronologically he first appears in The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz. He appears in Oz again in The Law of Oz and Other Stories.


Rak: An evil creature, similar to a dragon, and possibly related to them, but larger and fiercer. They are feared by all. In Bucketheads in Oz, author Phyllis Ann Karr addresses a thorny continuity issue regarding death and destruction: "When Private Files assured the rest of the Army of Oogaboo that if the Rak ate them 'each small piece will still be alive,' he was either misinformed or stretching the point to keep up morale. Each small piece would have remained alive only until digested. To be technical, much of it would then have been alive as part of the Rak's body; but if Files understood that bit himself, he did not explain it to his officers."


Rose Kingdom: Roseland's origins are explained in The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1. It was begun by Omiarr, a fairy man, who had been enchanted into a rosebush by an evil wizard who'd been angry with him for not helping him conquer Mo. As the wizard was later killed by a knight, Omiarr remained in that form for a century, giving forth seeds which became a vegetable man and woman. Omiarr was later found again by Lulea and returned to the Forest of Burzee, though his offspring continue to grow and live in the Rose Kingdom.


The Shaggy Man's Brother: The name of Shaggy Man's brother in this book is not revealed, however, it's made explicit in four other sources.  Baum's musical production The Tik-Tok Man of Oz called him Wiggy, which can be a nickname for William, yet Baum never brings either name into book-canon, and it's not in every draft of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz screenplay either.  Perhaps Baum felt Shaggy and Wiggy were too silly. In any case, Karyl Carlson and Eric Gjovaag, in Queen Ann in Oz revealed that the Shaggy Man's actual name was actually Shagrick Mann.  This provides a surname for both men. Mark E. Haas, in The Emerald Mountain of Oz, revealed his brother's first name to be Daniel. The Magic Bowls of Oz, however, calls him Ichabod. The former story takes place in 1999, while the latter is in 1952. It appears that the Shaggy Man's brother might in fact have been named Ichabod Mann. His brother may have called him "Wiggy" as a nickname, but Ichabod never cared for his given name, and opted to change it to Daniel at some point.


Unlike his brother, Ichabod/Daniel had become wealthy. Early in Tik-Tok, the text says he was taken while working in the mines, which has led many to assume he was a miner. However, the text contradicts this. He's said to be wearing fine clothes (and silk stockings), which would be more than unusual for someone working the mines. Closer examination of the text reveals that he owned the mine, and had made his fortune back when he "was a miner" and "dug gold out of a mine."  Years later, he returned to what was literally "his mine," likely to inspect it for more gold. It was at this time that the Nomes abducted him. Shaggy said it was ten years ago, which would date this abduction to 1895 (as this story takes place in 1905), however, Ruggedo was enchanted into a lizard by Glinda during this period (Cory in Oz), so 1893 is the latest year in which he could have abducted Ichabod. Ichabod/Daniel Mann appears in several later stories, including The Magic Bowls of Oz, The Enchanted Gnome of Oz, The Emerald Mountain of Oz, and "Peer Counseling," where he's identified as bisexual.


Toto: The reason Toto hasn't spoken until this point is revealed in Oz-Story Magazine #6 short story, "Toto and the Truth."






The Sea Fairies

Book #69 of the Supreme Seventy-Five and the ninth Borderlands of Oz Book!


Synopsis: While exploring a cave, Mayre "Trot: Griffiths, a young girl, asks her father's friend Cap'n Bill Weedles, a salty old sailorwho lives with her and her mother in Californiaif he's ever seen a mermaid. When Cap'n Bill tells Trot that no one sees mermaids and lives, two mermaids (Clia and Merla) arrive to dispel that rumor, and invite them to come explore the underwater realm of the Sea Fairies.


During an extensive tour of the sea and its inhabitants (and a preponderance of puns), Trot manages to be obnoxious to anyone who's not pretty or amusing to her. Finally, the travelers are brought to greet the ancient Sea Serpent King Anko and the mermaid Queen Aquareine, who give them magical protection before accompanying them on the next leg of their journey.


They're soon waylaid and abducted by Monster Devilfish who corral them to the home of Zog the Forsaken, who desires to kill them in order to punish his old enemy King Anko. Kept prisoner in his palace, they meet Sacho, a happy-go-lucky servant, and several not-so-unhappy slaves, including Bill's brother Cap'n Joe (who may be his twin) who sows Zog's buttons.


Zog feeds them well and gives them the run of his castle, but is intent on defeating Aquareine's powers. After several attempts fail, Aquareine and Cap'n Bill bribe his goldsmith to make the queen a golden sword. Zog, however, thwarts her efforts, but at the last minute, King Anko arrives to destroy Zog. He then entertains Trot with stories, and sends the visitors back home.



Dating: This story takes place over the course of four days. No year is given, though it is before its sequel Sky Island, which is established (in The Lost Boy of Oz) to be three years prior to The Scarecrow of Oz.


Aquareine: Queen Aquareine is among the first of the mermaids created before mankind. She is the daughter of King Aquarus (Wooglet in Oz). Aquareine returns in The Witch Queen of Oz, The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz, Book 1, Wooglet in Oz, the Oziana #38 story "Polychrome Visits the Sea Fairies," and Beach Blanket BabylOzHer appearance in The Royal Explorers of Oz reveals that she's King Anko's wife.


Cap'n Bill Wheedles: Cap'n Bill is said to be 61 years old. His brother Cap'n Joe (apparently a twin) is discovered in the underwater kingdom of Zog, and later becomes ruler of that domain after Zog is killed and the slaves demand someone to lord over them. The Glass Cat of Oz indicates that Cap'n Bob and Trot live in Laguna Beach, CA. The Laughing Dragon of Oz indicates that Cap'n Bill and Cap'n Joe have another brother, Cap'n Bob, who was a lighthouse keeper until he too was swept into Oz.


Trot: Trot is eleven years old in this story. Her first appearance is not promising, as she's portrayed as shallow, rude, disrespectful and mean-spirited. Traveling through the homes of various underwater creatures, Trot manages to be insulting and offensive to the codfish, the mackerel, the sea spider (who at least has the presence of mind to tell her off), and the octopus, who Trot calls "horrid and horrible" for no other reason that that she doesn't like his appearance. Even when he tries to explain to her that he's not dangerous or anything other than gentlemanly, she steadfastly refuses to listen and verbally abuses him to the point that he cries. She also tells Zog, upon first meeting him, that he ought to kill himself! Why Baum portrays her this way is unknown, though it may be an indication of her abuse at home, as he portrays her mother as verbally abusive to both her and Cap'n Bill in Sky Island. Thankfully, Trot appears to have matured by the time of Sky Island and does not behave the way she does here in any subsequent story.


Trot's Ring: Trot will use the ring several times to summon help. The first is in The Emerald City Mirror #43. The second is in The Glass Cat of Oz. The third time is in An Ozian Odyssey. The fourth is in Beach Blanket BabylOz.


King Anko and the Sea Serpents: Only three of these ancient sea serpents exist, Anko (who's over a mile long), Unko, and Inko, and each has his own ocean. Presumably, King Anko's is the Nonestic (and presumably the Nonentic and the Rolantic), leaving the Pacific and Atlantic for his younger brothers, though it may be that they are kings over other fairyland oceans. Anko claims to have been first creature measured by Adam, and tells stories of the ancient Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzer and the Roman king Caesar. As regards other sea serpents, such as the A-B-Sea Serpent of The Royal Book of Oz, these are clearly from a much later period and represent a very different type of creature. King Anko makes several later appearances, such as in Wooglet in Oz, where he's still growing longer, and telling stories of Noah's wife and Poseidon, The Witch Queen of Oz, where he's turned into stone by Lurline's sister Enilrul, and The Royal Explorers of Oz, where he's shown to be able to shapeshift and is the consort of Queen Aquareine, and father to Princess Clia and Sally, amongst other mermaids.


Language: The mermaids cast a spell allowing Bill and Trot to understand the languages of the underwater inhabitants.


Monster Devilfish: Described as being reddish octopi who are evil spirits that serve under a Prince Devilfish, who serves Zog.


Zog: Said to be 27,000 years old, Zog is part-man, part-bird, part-fish, part-beast and part-reptile. He has a beautiful face, along with traditional satanic horns, hoofs and goatee. He is ashamed of anything below his torso (basically a serpent's coils), but his main problem is that he thinks of himself as evil, and has been holding a grudge against King Anko for 200 years, though why we don't yet know. His undersea palace is beautiful, however, and he has many human servants whom he saved from shipwreck, and who he treats well. His bark is apparently much worse than his bite. Anko hates him, however, and he is killed. Zog is one of the few Baum villains who is actually destroyed (and onscreen). Zog and the Monster Devilfish are considered by some to be a kind of predecessor to H.P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu and Old Ones. It is not known if Lovecraft read any of Baum's stories, but Robert M. Price once suggested that The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was a direct inspiration for Lovecraft's The Dream Quest of Unknown Kadath.






Sky Island

Book #70 of the Supreme Seventy-Five and the tenth Borderlands of Oz Book! This is a sequel to The Sea Fairies.


Synopsis: Button-Bright arrives in California and meets Trot and Cap'n Bill. When Bill doesn't believe his story about his Magic Umbrella, Button-Bright proves it to him, and they go on an adventure to what they think is a local island, but is in fact a fairy-island in the sky.


The island is divided into a blue and pink section, and separated by a large foggy swamp. They arrive on the blue side first, and literally bump into the blue's leader Boolooroo, who angrily has them made slaves, and takes the umbrella. Trot becomes servant of the Six Snubnosed Princesses, who mistreat her, but with the help of their six pets (who have also been abused by the princesses), manages to escape. Cap'n Bill, meanwhile, meets with Ghip-Ghisizzle, who is next in line to rule, and who dislikes the tyranny of the Boolooroo, who he believes has long ago exceeded his reign (limited to a maximum of three hundred years). Only the Royal Book can prove it, but the Boolooroo has locked it up. Button-Bright, who is designated the royal shoeshine, is the key to their freedom, and he sneaks into the Boolooroo's rooms to find the Magic Umbrella. Unable to locate it, he secures instead the Royal Book, but not before alarming the soldiers. The three adventurers, in danger from the ruler and the people, who hate them, flee along with one of the Princesses' pet parrots and escape into the fog bank.


There they meet an alligator-like creature who likes parsnips and a giant frog who leads them to the Pink side of the Island. The Pinkies are somewhat less violent, but are also divided between the sunrise and sunset portions of the island. While they are well off, their ruler Tourmaline lives in poverty. She doesn't know what to do with the strangers, since none have ever ventured onto their island and calls for a jury of twelve. As they are split on whether to push them off the brink of the island or spare them, she calls the Witch Rosalie to arbitrate. Rosalie believes they're innocent, but also believes that they're being protected by fairies, and desirous of meeting them, sides with the party that wishes to push them off the edge.


Rosalie's suspicions prove true when Polychrome shows up and comes to their aid. She also reads and interprets their Laws, demonstrating that not only are the strangers in their rights to live, but that due to Trot having the lightest skin among the Pinks, she is actually the rightful ruler. Tourmaline is thrilled to leave the duties to Trot, who goes about making some fair changes to the Law. Trot then orders an attack on the Blues.


Trot's army crosses the Fog Bank with the help of the giant frogs. They brandish spears, but as she doesn't wish to harm anyone, they use them mainly for intimidation. The Blues hide behind their fortress until one time where they capture Cap'n Bill. Trot sneaks into the castle to rescue him, and discovers that Ghip Ghisizzle is scheduled to be "patched" (cut in half and re-attached to another person). She frees him and he escapes to the Pink side, where he discovers that indeed the Boolooroo has been cheating. Trot confronts the Boolooroo, and with the help of an irate goat, defeats him and the princesses, exiling them. Ghip-Ghisizzle is made king, while Rosalie is made queen of the Pinks, and after finding the Magic Umbrella, they depart again for home.


Continuity Notes

Characterizations: Button-Bright is clearly much older than he when he first appeared in The Road to Oz, and is actually much more mature and focused than he is the subsequent stories The Scarecrow of Oz and The Lost Princess of Oz, where he's immature and flighty. This discrepancy is explained in The Magic Umbrella of Oz.


Dating: Trot notes that it's not the rainy season (in California), which runs from October through March. This gives a rough estimate from April to September for the month this book takes place, which is some time after The Sea Fairies.


Fog Bank: The land crab in the Fog Bank territory of Sky Island "had the misfortune to tumble out of the Zodiac some time ago." There's no indication if this is intended to be an aspect of this world or if it's simply a joke. Are the others associated with the zodiac? It is also unexplained why the animals in the Fog Bank are so huge.


The Magic Umbrella: The elephant-handle of the Magic Umbrella becomes an actual elephant when the frogs refuse to allow the umbrella in their country. Once across, it returns to its original form. The umbrella also refuses to take the Boolooroo anywhere. The actual history of the umbrella is revealed in Paul Dana's The Magic Umbrella of Oz.


Oz Books in Oz: Just as Betsy had in Tik-Tok of Oz, Trot has heard of the Land of Oz, clearly from Baum's books and the 1903 musical extravaganza.


Parrot: In "Diplomatic Immunity," it's revealed that Rosalie later named the parrot Cy, and uses him to send messages to the Boolooroo.


Queen: By becoming Queen of Sky Island, Trot destroys the divisions that plague both sides, and within each side. She places Ghip Ghisizzle in power, deposing the malevolent Boolooroo and destroying his patching machine. Trot also places the good witch Rosalie in power over the Pinks, relieving Tourmaline, who doesn't wish to rule, but also changing the law so that the Pink rulers can have as much as their citizens (though not more.)


Sequel: Trot revisits Sky Island again in The Witch Queen of Oz, which takes place in 1908, the Oziana 1984 story "The Blue Raindrops of Oz," which takes place in 1937 and features the return of the Boolooroo and the witch-queen Rosalie, and the forthcoming short story "Diplomatic Immunity."






Fat Babies, or The Temptation of the Hungry Tiger

Available to read here!

Synopsis: forthcoming

Continuity Notes forthcoming





Back to Oz









The Scarecrow of Oz

The 9th Oz book of the Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!


Synopsis: Trot and Cap'n Bill (from The Sea Fairies and Sky Island) find themselves swallowed by a whirlpool, leaving them in a precarious cave, where they meet the Ork Flipper. Orks are unusual bird-like creatures from Orkland that can speak. Flipper helps guide them out of the cave. Like them, the Ork is looking to find his home.


The three alight on Pessim's island. Pessim was exiled by his people, the Momen, for being constantly pessimistic. Eventually, they discover a way to escape with the help of magic berries, some which shrink the eater, some which grow them. Shrinking to a small size, the Ork is able to fly Trot and Cap'n Bill to Mo.


In the Land of Mo (from The Magical Monarch of Mo), they resume their normal size and meet the Bumpy Man, who helps them and Button-Bright (last seen in Sky Island), whose lost his Magic Umbrella. After Cap'n Bill ties strings to several birds, they convince the three birds to eat the magic berries that make them grow. The birds then fly them across the Deadly Desert, where they land in a secluded valley called Jinxland.


As the Ork flies off to find his home, Trot and Cap'n Bill meet with Pon the Gardener's Boy and discover the political and social situation. Jinxland is ruled by a king named King Krewl. When he had been Prime Minister, he'd pushed Pon's father, King Phearse, into a pond and covered him with stones. Phearse in turn had been Prime Minister to King Kynd, who he pushed in the gulf separating Jinxland from the rest of Oz.


Prince Pon explains that he's fallen in love with King Kynd's daughter, Princess Gloria, but King Krewl (her uncle) refuses to let them marry, and seeks instead to marry his niece to the wealthy Googly-Goo (who is contributing to his personal coffers).


Krewl and Googly-Goo employ the Wicked Witch of Jinxland to take care of events. Together with her three sisters, the Wicked Witch, who they call Blinkie because of her damaged eye, freezes Gloria's heart and turns Cap'n Bill into a grasshopper. Blinkie discovers that Trot and Pon have been spying on her, and goes after them. Reading of these events in her Book of Records, Glinda sends the Scarecrow to Jinxland to sort things out. Once he arrives, however, he is captured by Krewl who prepares to set fire to him until a group of Orks led by Flipper arrive to save him. Krewl is deposed and made the new Gardener's Boy. The Scarecrow has the Orks find Blinkie, and begins to shrink her until she restores Cap'n Bill and Princess Gloria's heart. Gloria is made ruler, leaving her and Pon free to wed.


Trot, Cap'n Bill and Button-Bright return with the Scarecrow to Oz, where they are asked to stay.



Characterization: Button-Bright is characterized oddly; he's immature, but not as childish as he was in The Road to Oz, yet not as mature as he showed himself to be in Sky Island. This is attributed to not having his magic umbrella in The Magic Umbrella of Oz. Trot, while not as abrasive and rude as she was in The Sea Fairies, is still rather ill-equipped to deal with Princess Gloria's loss of Pon.


Dating: The narrative takes place over the course of 12 days. See the Day-t0-Day Chronology of Oz for more details. Trot tells the Bumpy Man that "it can't be winter yet," yet Cap'n Bill remarks that it felt like the hottest day of the year. The time of year is difficult to ascertain. Due to Button-Bright's age (as noted in The Law of Oz and Other Stories), it must be in 1907 or 1908. 


Fairies: Trot is again shown to be under the protection of the fairies, which is something that the witch Rosalie postulated in Sky Island. Here, when they're in the whirlpool, "Trot was almost sure unseen arms were about her, supporting her and protecting her" (pages 22-23). This may hint at the reasons certain ones are brought to fairyland and not others.


Meta-fiction: Trot knows of Dorothy, the Land of Oz, and Ozma, indicating that, like Betsy, she'd read the then extant Oz books (which would then be up to The Marvelous Land of Oz).


Movie: Much of this story is based on Baum's Oz-Film Company 1914 motion-picture His Majesty, the Scarecrow of Oz. There is speculation that Baum initially intended Jinxland to be a separate place (and may have been his conception for a third Trot and Cap'n Bill book), but then later decided to graft it unto Oz.


Mystery: Glinda says "I do not see any way, at present, for them to return again to the outside world." Why Ozma doesn't use the Magic Belt to return them home, or even to rescue the Scarecrow and bring Trot, Cap'n Bill and Button-Bright to the Emerald City is unexplained.  This implies that either they don't have the Belt during that time, that its power was somehow drained (though that's only a temporary hindrance), or another explanation that has yet to be revealed.


Ork: Though referred by the name Flipper only once in the story, the Ork's actually name is revealed to be Orville in The Ork in Oz. Flipper, the book notes, is a nickname his father gave him, which he doesn't like or go by.


Orkland is said to be 200 miles by land and sea from Oz. Never seen in this book, it is visited in The Ork in Oz.


Ozma: In chapter 21, Ozma is described by Baum as having come from "a long line of fairy queens." Some have interpreted this to mean that the kings and queens of Oz prior to her were fairies, but in fact, it refers to Ozma's pre-incarnate life as a fairy of Lurline's band. Lurline herself is a fairy queen.


Politics: Why do Ozma and Glinda choose not to interfere with the political situation in Jinxland until the coming of Trot, Cap'n Bill and Button-Bright? The simplest answer is that it happened before Ozma came to power, and that it escaped the attention of Glinda. The Gardener's Boy of Oz notes two points, one that there was simply too much going on in Oz (which is true when one looks at how busy they've been since Ozma came to power), and that the witches cast a spell over the border, muddling the minds of any birds who might otherwise report the problems going on in that country (the Ork, not being from Oz, but Orkland, was immune). Glinda may also have been abiding by the will of the people, who had to learn for themselves that instead of settling for kings like Phearse and Krewl, they should have a ruler with a heart.


Sequels: Several plot threads that Baum left dangling are picked up in this book's sequel, Phyllis Ann Karr's The Gardener's Boy of Oz, which returns to Jinxland to address the issue of King Kynd (and his wife, Gloria's mother), King Phearse, Googly-Goo (whose deeds go unaddressed at the end of this story), Blinkie and her three sisters, and Pon, who is revealed to not be King Phearse's son at all. This book goes a long way towards expanding the characters, back-story and dangling plot threads that Baum never got around to telling. Jack & Larry Brenton's The Ork in Oz also follows the exploits of the shrunken Blinkie, as she discovers a way to get revenge.






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