DELVE DEEPER INTO OZ
An Appendix to the Oz Books
Interior illustrations by John R. Neill
Background art by Daniel Merriam
Appendix A: The Chronology & Continuity of the Oz Series
I. Regarding General Dates in the early Oz Books
IV. Defining Canon and the Expanded Universe: The Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty, Supreme Seventy-Five & the Deuterocanonical Books
Appendix B: Dating the Early Oz Books
Appendix C: Thompson and the New Chronology
Appendix D: The Ban on Magic in Oz
Appendix E: The History of the Phanfasms
Appendix G: Names and Relations of the Wicked Witches of Oz
Appendix H: Ozma and Tip: The Switcheroo Spell
Appendix J: The Glass Cat
Appendix M: Sky Countries in Nonestica
Appendix N: The Magical Roads of Oz
Appendix O: Tik-Tok's Troublesome Map
Appendix P: Living Dolls in Oz
Appendix Q: Crossovers in Oz
Appendix U: The History of the Silver Shoes
Appendix W: Death and Aging in Oz
Chronology, I’ve learned, is a field that does not lend itself to complete objectivity. Gaps in the narratives and various contradictory events presenting themselves as histories force those of us in this field to one of two evils... One, the chronologer leaves a question mark or blank space where he or she doesn’t have complete facts to verify his claim. Or two, the chronologer fill in the gaps with the best evidence available, keeping an eye out for more information that might come to light. Either one presents a wholly unsatisfactory and imperfect body of work, yet, as it can't be avoided, one or both must be employed.
Following the tradition of chronologers of old, I’ve chosen to employ the latter approach as the case warrants it, leaning on the side of investigative deduction and educated guesswork because it makes for the better reading experience. I never said the job was pretty. One must be confident in the dates and placements when it’s called to fill in the gaps, yet also modest enough to make changes when necessary. The goal is ultimately the objective truth of history.
The following is a very brief listing of notes I took during the compilation of these timelines. They include some of the reasons behind my decisions to place events in a certain time or place. It is by no means exhaustive, but rather a quick glimpse into some of my meanderings regarding Oz questions and dilemmas. Spoilers apply! Any comments, email me here:
Due to the fact that Baum crossed over Oz with his other fantasy-worlds (one of the first, if not the first to do so), the vast majority of his fantasy stories are set in the same universe. These books and stories have been called "Borderlands" because their locations are literally on the borders of Oz, either on the mainland or somewhere in the Nonestic Ocean, which lies outside the mainland countries of Nonestica.
In the past, there was some debate as to which of Baum's non-Oz fantasy books constitute "Borderlands of Oz" books. Ruth Berman, author of "Who's Who in the Borderlands of Oz" admits that "the division between Borderlands and American fantasy titles is somewhat arbitrary," and I'm inclined to agree. Yet even Berman leaves out three titles that I believe belong in the category: Twinkle and Chubbins, Policeman Bluejay and Animal Fairy Tales. Policeman Bluejay (the sequel to Twinkle and Chubbins) was a story Baum wanted to subtitle "An Oz Tale," which is a strong indication that he regarded it as occurring in the same universe. With that in mind, the stories that encompass both American Fairy Tales and Animal Fairy Tales should likewise be considered as taking place in the same universe, as they are fantasy stories, even if they take place in the relatively non-magical outside world.
The Royal Timeline of Oz considers the Borderlands of Oz books to consist of 15 titles in total. As many of Baum's short stories did not make it into a dedicated collection until The International Wizard of Oz Club published The Collected Short Stories of L. Frank Baum, I consider that book the 11th Borderlands of Oz book, encompassing all of Baum's short stories from American and Animal Fairy Tales, and particularly the ten short stories that were never collected under one cover until the Club's publication. Even Berman considers many of these short stories part of her Borderlands designation. Additionally, Thompson had Borderlands stories as well, lest we forget that Pumperdink, the Silver Mountain, Patch and Sun-Top Mountains all come from her non-Oz works, e.g., "The Wizard of Way-Up" stories and other stories she wrote for the Philadelphia Ledger. Similarly, characters like Bustabo (from Ozoplaning with the Wizard of Oz) appear in her Sissajig stories and Ogowan appears again in King Kojo (as Oh-Go-Wan). Thus, I've included the International Wizard of Oz collections, The Wizard of Way-Up and Other Wonders, Sissajig and Other Stories and King Kojo as Borderlands books as well. See below for the complete list.
It must be understood first and foremost that Oz canon is primarily the work of L. Frank Baum. His developing conception of Oz over the course of his seventeen Oz stories, as well as his development of the otherworld, in which Oz is located, and his non-Oz fantasies (which border Oz geographically and narratively) is rightly first and foremost "true." While the list of canonical books generally refers to those titles which were officially commissioned by Reilly & Lee (the publisher who held the rights to the books until they went into public domain, or reverted to the Baum Trust), the fact is that Baum's successor Ruth Plumly Thompson had a tendency to jettison many of Baum's progressive themes and concepts in favor of the far more conservative ideas she held. Thus, in order to consider the original body of published Oz books "canon," one has no choice but to invoke a hierarchy of canon, with Baum on top. Baum left a lot of room for exploration, but those statements and ideas that contradict his conception of Oz have to be considered as either in error or in need of explanation. Baum is and must remain at the top of the canonical pyramid.
The complete published books have for many years been generally referred to as the Famous Forty. The problem with this clever designation is that it doesn't accurately represent the number of stories that were written by the original authors. In fact, it doesn't even count three of Baum's own works. To reconcile this discrepancy and keep with the concept of "canon" itself, some have given these additional stories the somewhat pejorative sobriquet, "Quasi-Canonical books," or more generously, the "Deuterocanonical Seven," in imitation of the term used by Catholic Bibles to refer to the additional books considered canon, so-called deutero canon, because they were accepted later on.
The Royal Timeline of Oz presents a new, modern view of canon that eschews the pointless limitations of the Famous Forty. The additional Oz books by Baum, Thompson, Neill, Cosgrove-Payes or the McGraws are not to be considered "quasi" canon or even deuterocanonical, but canon itself. While deuterocanon is not an inappropriate term by any means, it's a designation best saved for modern works. Reilly & Britton (later Reilly & Lee) are not the baseline for canon, nor should they be. Such a demarcation fails to stand up in light of actual scrutiny. Let's examine that history briefly.
The original publisher of any Oz book was George M. Hill. With the demise of that company, two of his employees, Reilly & Britton started up their own company and began publishing Baum's Oz (and non-Oz) stories. When Britton died, the company became Reilly & Lee. When both men passed, however, a frugal and unimaginative employee named Frank O'Donnell took over, and during his tenure managed to do as little as possible to promote new Oz books, much to the aggravation of then-Royal Historian Ruth Plumly Thompson, who actually stopped writing Oz books on his account. Content to ride on the company's back catalogue, O'Donnell rarely commissioned new Oz books, and between the years of 1942 and 1946, 1946 and 1949, and 1951 and 1963, no new titles came forth, allowing 19 years in total to go by without an Oz book. This was a disastrous move, particularly when one considers that the Oz series—prior to his involvement—had been running consecutively and without interruption for 35 years (from 1907-1942)! Even Baum's death didn't stop the successful one-Oz-book-a-year tradition! No, it took a bad businessman with no interest in the series to do that. Were it not for the 1939 MGM motion-picture The Wizard of Oz, the Oz books would likely have fallen into obscurity.
With this in mind, the idea of "canon" can be understood as needing a radical readjustment. No publisher, and certainly not Reilly & Lee from the Forties onward should be considered the arbiters of what constitutes canon. Beginning with the very basic idea that the original authors are the legitimate "Royal Historians of Oz," the stories they wrote, regardless of when they wrote it (or who published it), constitute canon, as imperfect as that canon may seemingly be.
Thanks in no small part to The International Wizard of Oz Club, which sought out and received the legal right to publish new Oz fiction, Oz continued, and in time older stories that hadn't been published by Reilly & Lee were brought forth as "new" works of the original "Royal Historians," which are now available for fans to enjoy. Thus, even the staunchest purists can see that the International Wizard of Oz Club is an extension of the former publishers. Additionally, since the works of the Royal Illustrators who become Royal Historians are traditionally considered canon, even if those works are far out there (e.g., The Wonder City of Oz), so too should the works of Dick Martin and Eric Shanower (who illustrated several canonical author's works) be considered canon. And if the latter is reasonable and true, then so too should the works that Shanower published (e.g., the two Edward Einhorn books).
As to the books of Sherwood Smith, the Baum Trust has added them to their list of approved authors, and The Royal Timeline of Oz sees no reason not to include them as canonical. Not counting the Borderlands of Oz books, the canonical books that strictly deal with Oz and events directly impacting Oz amount to 60 and have been here dubbed The Sovereign Sixty. Together with the Borderlands of Oz books, canon can and should be considered 75 in total, hence The Supreme Seventy-Five.
1905: Prior to The Patchwork Girl of Oz, Ozma bans the practice of magic in Oz, fearful that its use will result in disaster and harm for Oz and its citizens. Only Glinda, the Wizard and herself are excluded. While not a magic-practitioner, Dorothy is allowed to use the Magic Belt. The Hollyhock Dolls of Oz reveals that The Good Witch of the North goes into retirement until Ozma gives her an exemption, and urges her out of retirement later in the year. Ozma agrees to look into the law, recognizing that it is restrictive, but nothing further comes of this until about sixty years later.
1964: Paul Dana's The Law of Oz and Other Stories pictures the end of the absolutist approach, the one in which only Ozma, Glinda and the Wizard can practice any kind of magic. From this point forward, Ozma allows the Yookoohoos to behave in the way that is natural to their beings. Despite this exception, the law stands that Ozma, Glinda and the Wizard are the sole practitioners of magic.
1982: Due to the events of An Ozian Odyssey, Ozma now allows individuals to petition for a license to practice magic in Oz. This makes way for Maggie, the next Good Witch of the North, Zim the Flying Sorcerer and others to practice magic legally. Melody Grandy's Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 2
1999: Finally, Edward Einhorn's The Living House of Oz brings the law into sharp focus as Mordra, a witch from a parallel Oziverse, is put on trial for practicing magic, an event that ends up seeing the law itself tried and removed entirely. From this point forward, the ban on the practice of magic is lifted, but the misuse of magic is instead banned, which includes frivolous and trivial uses of magic.
Image by Jaun Raza, from The Magic Umbrella of Oz
Following the end of Reilly & Lee's stewardship of the Oz books, the history of Ruggedo often gets confusing due to the fact that the he's brought back in a number of later stories. The Royal Timeline of Oz has sought to correct this by putting together a narrative that fits within the overall chronology as defined on the primary Oz Timeline. Those stories which don't appear to fit are found in the Parallel Histories section.
Note: The following names and relations are mainly based on established works and some which have not yet been published.
History: From 1744 to 1871, a Wicked Witch ruled in at least two of the four quadrants of Oz. For over 125 years, the Compass Witches dominated and terrorized Oz, and yet they could never take full control due to the prevailing forces that ruled at the capital in Ozmara/Morrow, the Good Witch in the South, and the Good Witch in the North.
The weakest link of the confederacy of Compass Witches was always the Wicked Witch of the South, of which there were three in succession, each dangerous in her own right, but each succumbing to the power of Glinda the Good Witch of the South. It began with the defeat of Singra in 1831, then her belligerent sister Angra in 1842, and finally the Jinxland witch Blinkie some time around or before 1871. That date also marked both the biggest win and final blow for the confederacy.
Mombi had at last managed to defeat the royal family at Morrow. Kings Ozroar, Pastoria I and II, grandfather, father and son, all done away with, even down to their meddling wives and prime ministers, all who might possibly pose a threat. The capital was free to rule. But which of the Witches would rule it?
That contested question would never be answered as Mombi was suddenly defeated in her own territory by a mere Tah-Tipuu, Locasta, the so-called Good Witch of the North (though only for a time, as Mombi's power would return over a decade later to exact revenge). And one blow followed another. Before the East and West Witches could take over Morrow and rule Oz, a Wizard dropped out of the sky. Not only were they unable to defeat him, a task that would've proved simple had they still had the combined power of all four witches, but the Wizard brought with him hope! The people rallied around this new and mysterious savior from above. By the time Lady Malvonia and Lady Morella were able to destroy the capital at Morrow (Ozmara) once and for all in 1892, it was a moot point. The Wizard had built and moved into a new walled capital in the central greenlands called The Emerald City, Mombi was once again defeated by a Good Witch in the North (and this one of her own making!), and the child of the Fairy Queen, prophesied to rule Oz, was missing!
It was clear that there were other forces at work. But the witches were nothing if not tenacious, and they bided their time. Six years would pass before they would be ready to make their move on the Emerald City and its sham wizard. And then, as the day approached, an even greater threat came from the sky, the witch killer herself, Dorothy Gale. Within a single month, 21 days to be exact, the two most powerful dark forces in Oz would be swept away by a mere six year old girl without power, wealth, or name. The niece of poor farmers, Dorothy of Kansas would usher in the Golden Age of Oz, ruled by the benevolent powers of the Fairy Ozma, the sorceress Glinda, and a mortal humbug, Oscar Diggs. These three would ensure that the peoples of the land would remain in love, peace, and prosperity.
Primary Witch Siblings
Wicked Witch of the West:
Family name: Mordra. Court name: Lady Morella, the Wise Woman of the West. Called Bastinda by some of the Winkies in secret (from bastinado/bastonada: to beat with a stick, staff or cudgel; caning). Accidentally melted by Dorothy. (The Wonderful Wizard of Oz) She returned briefly in the body of the Witch Queen Enilrul. (The Witch Queen of Oz). As with her sister, this witch has been assigned several names in spin-off fiction and films, including Bastinda (from Alexander Volkov's Magic Land series), Evillene (from the musical and film The Wiz), Allidap (from the Wiz Kids of Oz teacher Padilla), Elphaba (from the book and musical Wicked), and Theodora (from the 2013 film Oz the Great and Powerful), and others. A story in Oziana 2013, "Witches of the West," implies that these are false names used and sold by the witch for power, though it seems unlikely that any of these names would have actually been known in Oz, let alone used, but they may be placeholders for the actual names she gathered and sold. A good version of Mordra appeared in Oz from a parallel Oz universe created when Ozma went back in time with Tempus in Paradox in Oz. This benevolent Mordra now lives in Oz with her son Buddy (The Living House of Oz) in Oz.
Wicked Witch of the East:
Family name: Malva. Court name: Lady Malvonia, the Wise Woman of the East. Called Gingema or Gingemma (which simply means witch) by some of the Munchkins. A glimpse into her early life and rule can be found in The Magic Umbrella of Oz. She is the elder of the two sisters, and the vainer of the two. She owned the Silver Shoes that had once belonged to the dark fairy Enilrul. She was put asleep for a time (in part due to the time-traveling exploits of Button Bright and Ojo), after which Princess Ava, another witch─and a relative─replaced her (if any aspects of Ages of Oz is to be believed and accepted as historical). When Dorothy came to Oz, she was crushed by Uncle Henry's house carried by a tornado to Oz (The Wonderful Wizard of Oz). She returned briefly due to Father Goose's magic pen (Father Goose in Oz), and then again in the body of the Witch Queen Enilrul. (The Witch Queen of Oz) As with her sister, this witch has been assigned several names in spin-off fiction and films, including Evvamene (from the musical and Evermean from the film The Wiz), Nessarose (from the book and musical Wicked), and Evanora (from the 2013 film Oz the Great and Powerful). The Oziana 2013, "Witches of the West," implies that these are false names used and sold by the witch for power. Yet, as with her sister, it seems highly unlikely that names invented for movies and musicals have any relevance to what took place in the historical Oz, but these may be placeholders for the actual names she gathered and sold.
Unknown Witch of the North: Birth name: Nemain. Familial nickname: Feah. Murdered in the distant past by her sisters. Nimmie Aimee is her daughter, but this is known to few. Little else is known about her, though rumors abound that she yet lives in secret in the Dangerous Passages in the northwestern corner of Oz (forthcoming in The Wizards of Silver and Gold in Oz and In Flesh of Burnished Tin)
Magician Brother: Birth name: Unknown. Called Sir Wiley Gyle. Appeared in 1901 in The Speckled Rose of Oz. Defeated by the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman and Lion, and made a prisoner. Whereabouts unknown. Little is known of this brother of the Wicked Witches, or even whether his claim are even true (though they're not improbable).
Secondary Witch Sisters (and cousins of the Primary Witches)
1st Wicked Witch of the South: Possible birth name: Sinnian. Chosen name: Singra. Put to sleep by Glinda in 1831. Arises again in 1931. (The Wicked Witch of Oz). Singra was neither as powerful or vicious as her sister, and although she could read a spellbook and put together the ingredients to create magical objects and formulae, she appears to have depended on her cousins, the Wicked Witches of the East and West, for most of her power. Although named Wicked Witch of the South, she never ruled the southern quadrant, something she always longed to. While it appears she came to power before Glinda ruled the South, Glinda served as the Royal Sorceress to the Quadling King Jandor IV prior to becoming ruler of the south. Singra did succeed in driving out King Jandor and the Royal Family, but this only led to Glinda's taking over rule. In either case, her abilities were never quite strong enough to defeat those in power. She appears to have been some years younger than Angra.
2nd Wicked Witch of the South: Possible birth name: Anann. Chosen name: Angra. Put to sleep by Glinda in 1842. Defeated in 1942. (The Enchanted Apples of Oz). Angra was a powerful and violent witch who when she was reawakened nearly defeated Ozma herself. The period of time in which she reigned over the southern Quadling country is yet untold in story, but it was a likely a dark age for that quadrant.
1st Wicked Witch of the North: Information forthcoming. Long before Mombi, a truly evil witch ruled the north, who was defeated at the hands of a young girl. Forthcoming information in A Missionary's Daughter in Oz.
2nd Wicked Witch of the North:
Birth name: Bina. Adopted name: Mombi. Defeated by Locasta, the Good Witch of the North in 1871. Then in 1892, she's defeated by Queen Orin, who she inadvertently made Good Witch of the North when she switched her with Locasta (The Giant Horse of Oz and the forthcoming "Tommy Kwikstep and the Magpie"). She came back into her powers soon after. The most effective of the witches, having abducted Ozma's grandfather King Oz, her father Pastoria II, and grandfather Ozroar (aka. King Oz Andahan the Roarer), as well as the King of the Munchkins. Purported to have been executed by water in 1913 (The Lost King of Oz), it was later revealed that she is a Yookoohoo and could not be destroyed by such means. Ozma spared her life and gave her the Water of Oblivion to drink instead (Oziana #38 "Executive Decisions"). Mombi's memory returned during the events of Bucketheads in Oz, and she abducted Ozma and Glinda. Her goal, in that instance, was to exile the youth of Oz, some of whom had bullied her in years past. She was later rendered harmless again by the keepers of the Mys-Tree, who likely gave her water from the Fountain of Oblivion.
3d Wicked Witch of the South:
Birth name: Unknown. Known name: Blinkie. Defeated in the late 1800s by Glinda; she attempted to assert power again in 1901 when she conjured the Sand Serpent (The Amber Flute of Oz), but escaped to Jinxland, where her other three sisters resided, Bilkie, Bikkie and Bittie. She had a fourth sister, Bleakie, who put aside the practice of dark magic and went with a wizard outside of Oz to do good in other lands ("Reddy and Willing: The Adventures of Jair in Oz"). Blinkie worked as a minor witch, but caused trouble when she froze the heart of Princess Gloria. She was later shrunk and robbed of magic (The Scarecrow of Oz and The Gardener's Boy of Oz). Even though she knew of Mombi, had considered her a hero when she was in her youth, and likely worked together as Compass Witches in 1870-71, Blinkie didn't actually get to meet Mombi until they joined forces in The Ork in Oz.
It is unknown which of the three Wicked Witches of the South leagued with the other three to depose King Oz, but it cannot have been Blinkie (as she didn't even meet Mombi until many years later). Seeing as Angra and Singra are sisters, it seems likely that the one took up the role of the other when the first was deposed, but how long (if any) a gap of time in between is not known. When both were defeated by Glinda, Blinkie then emerged from Jinxland to fill that vacuum. She did not last long and was forced to return to Jinxland. It is possible that other witches also came and went in these roles during certain periods, but as of yet there is no evidence to say either way.
L. Frank Baum left his readers with many unanswered questions, not a few of which have been reconciled by later authors who've examined the text and drawn certain conclusions. In some cases, however, these fixes (known as retcons) appear to contradict each other, and require a new way of looking at things. One of these involves the time that Ozma spent with Mombi as the boy Tip.
In Melody Grandy's Seven Blue Mountains of Oz trilogy, it is revealed that Ozma was not just changed into a boy, but switched into a boy's body. Tip is actually a person, who was himself switched into the body of Ozma at the very same time. In that story, Tip (then named Dinny) says he was born 28 years earlier. This is when the switcheroo spell occurred. According to the internal chronology, this event happened in 1873, two years after the Wizard arrived in Oz in 1871 (see How the Wizard Came to Oz for evidence of that date). This accords with that is said in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz (p. 197), by Ozma who says, “Mombi was still my grandfather’s jailor, and afterward my father’s jailor. When I was born she transformed me into a boy.”
One seeming problem with this can be found in Hugh Pendexter III's Oz and the Three Witches, as the Wizard doesn't hand baby Ozma to Mombi until his third visit to see her. This visit occurs after the construction of the Emerald City and its palace, which is 21 years after he arrives in Oz, specifically in 1892, which lines up with another historical point worth considering: Jack Pumpkinhead says that Tip lived with Mombi for nine years.
The final point to consider is that when the Good Witch of the North defeated Mombi and kicked her out of her hut, there is no child with Mombi at the time, else Orin would have taken her into custody (nor could Mombi have hidden him, as Orin stumbled upon Mombi by accident).
In order to reconcile The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz trilogy with Oz and the Three Witches, one thing must be true: Mombi must have performed the switcheroo spell on Ozma and Tip BEFORE the Wizard gave baby Ozma into her hands.
Oz and the Three Witches makes it clear that Mombi is cunning enough to obey the East and West witches to their faces, while secretly working to her own advantage. Mombi tells the Wizard that the baby is from a fairy band. If they discover it's been killed, they will return to rein destruction down on them. To avoid this, the child must be kept alive. This would explain why, when given the opportunity to disguise Ozma, she transforms her into a boy, even though the baby is not yet in her custody. The baby is protected by a deaf, mute nurse, and the Wizard say that he "always thought it was a boy." Once the Wizard discovers that he cannot protect the child well, he hands him over to Mombi to better safeguard her/him (which she does).
Oz history is replete with mention of various kings and queens over the centuries, with some accounts that appear to be confusing or contradictory, but most of which reflect incomplete information. The following timeline should help to demonstrate the various monarchs and the years they reigned, as revealed in the numerous archives. This timeline should by no means be seen as exhaustive; as new information comes forward, it will be updated. It is known that the kings and queens of Oz had fairy blood, yet they themselves were not fairies. How this came about is yet unknown. No fairy, except the evil Enilrul, ruled Oz until Ozma's ascension in 1901/2. The titles given to prior kings were King Oz and Queen Ozma. This usually preceded their given or chosen names. In Ozma's case, that was her given name long before coming to Oz, though her memory of that period has only come back to her over the years.
283 AD: Ozroar is born as Andahan in the Blue Land, which is much later to be known as the Munchkin Country. He is the son of a powerful fairy. His name Andahan means "Therefore the Dawn," but it can also mean, "Therefore pain," and is said to be the first words uttered by his mother.
622: The Ozian calendar year is established as Year 1 with Oz as a realm of four quadrants. This is the year the continent of Nonestica is moved to its own realm.
1227: Following her sister Queen Enilrul's abdication, Lurline places Andahan on the throne of Oz. He becomes King Oz Andahan the Roarer, but is later more commonly known as Ozroar the Blue Emperor. He will rule Oz intermittently for several hundred years. He has a son in this year, Pastoria, with his wife Queen Oz Ara. It is also yet unknown why it took him 900 years to have a son and heir.
1255: Prince Pastoria has a son: Prince Pastoria II. Pastoria I's wife is Queen Etti of Samandra, later known as Oz-Ette (or Ozette).
1256: 29 year old Prince Pastoria becomes King Oz Pastoria I. Pastoria's reign is marred by the curse Enilrul placed on him the very year he ascended the throne, and he becomes known in the next decade as the Mad King. Ozroar adopts Pastoria II as his own to protect him from his real father. This protects the boy for nine years.
1265: When King Oz tries to kill Pastoria II, Lurline takes the boy to protect him in Burzee and elsewhere. In a mad rage, King Oz leaves Oz in search of his son for 500 years. The former King Ozroar becomes the Blue Emperor of Oz again.
1400: At this point, a new king is crowned, a magician named Ozgood the Magnificent. He does some good during his time as king, including routing the wooden gargoyles and creating a sand snake to patrol the Deadly Desert.
1489: At this point in time, Queen Ozma Shallina is crowned ruler of Oz.
1733: The Mad King Oz Pastoria I returns to Oz and takes back rule, whether from his father Ozroar or another is unknown.
1742: With the Waters of Oblivion, the Fairy Queen Lurline restores King Oz Pastoria I's sanity. He abdicates to his now aged son, Prince Pastoria II, who has returned to Oz and marries. He becomes King Oz Pastoria II. Lurline enchants Oz and leaves the fairy Ozma, now in the form of a baby, with him and his wife Cordia. She will remain an infant for 150 years. Lurline's enchantment wakes up Lady Malvonia, the Wicked Witch of the East.
1743: With the stability of Oz restored, Ozroar establishes himself as ruler of the southern part of the Munchkin Country in Seebania, ending a potential civil war with the northern Munchkin House in Munchkenny, and its king from the Ozure Isles. The Blue Emperor continues to be popular with the people, but he must several times fight to keep his crown from rivals in Seebania funded by Lady Malvonia, the Wicked Witch of the East.
1871: The four Compass Witches put in motion their plan to conquer Oz. Mombi abducts the former King Oz Pastoria I. She then enchants the current King Oz Pastoria II, his wife Cordia, and his prime minister Pajuka. But before any of the witches can take the throne, Oscar Diggs drops out of the sky and is declared the Wizard of Oz and proclaimed ruler. He is brought to the capital at Morrow and becomes Oz the Great and Terrible.
1882: Ree Ala Bad's father, Tibira, a Chieftain of Shamsbad, wrests control of Seebania from Ozroar. Later, during a hunt, he shoots and kills Namyl the Gump.
1883: Ozroar takes back Shamsbad and is once again the Blue Emperor of Seebania.
1887: Mombi performs a switcheroo spell, transforming the baby girl Ozma into the baby boy Tippetarius. It is not known if the Wizard is aware of this, or if the infant's guardian even tells him. Mombi destroys the northern King of the Munchkins, King Obediah, along with the capital Munchkenny, leaving Prince Cheeriobed to become king in the Ozure Isles.
1891: A threat or rumor causes King Ozroar to go into hiding from Mombi. His wife Ozara takes over rule.
1892: Not wishing to miss his nephew Prince Pompadore's christening, Ozroar attends the celebration. There Mombi abducts and enchants him; she then does the same to his wife Queen Ozara at her palace in the Winkie Country. Ree Ala Bad's father Tibira exploits this and takes back rule of Seebania. The East and West Witches destroy Morrow, the capital of Oz. The Wizard moves into the newly constructed palace in the Emerald City and gives baby Ozma/Tip to Mombi. The child starts growing at a normal rate.
1898: Oscar Diggs leaves Oz. With the Wizard gone, the Scarecrow is made King of Oz.
1901: With the help of Mombi, the Scarecrow is deposed by General Jinjur, who briefly takes over rule of Oz. Princess Ozma is disenchanted by Glinda the Good, and becomes Queen Designate. King Knotso (Tibira Bad) of Seebania is killed on a hunting trip. The Magician Mooj takes over control of Seebania in the Southern Munchkin Country, but departs for his home in Moojer Mountain.
1902: Princess Ozma is inaugurated. Froom the Fraud takes over rule of the Southern Munchkin Country, claiming to be a relative of the dead king.
Appendix J) The Glass Cat
The Wizard removed Bungle the Glass Cat's pink brains at the end of The Patchwork Girl of Oz and replaced them with clear ones. Yet in every story since then, Bungle is described as having pink brains.
Perhaps Baum realized that the Wizard's lobotomy wasn't such a great thing, and that without her conceitedness, she wasn't much of a character. As he never showed the Wizard restoring her original brains, however, it opened up the opportunity for modern historians to tell that tale.
Turns out it was more involved than it might seem. Oziana 1978's "Beyond the Rainbow" and Oziana 1990's "The Final Fate of the Frogman" confirm that the Wizard indeed gave Bungle back her pink brains, but it wasn't until 2000 and 2004 that readers got a clearer picture of how this came about.
(artwork © Erin Miller)
There are seeming incongruities between two of the three short stories that tell the tale, but put together, they indicate that there were TWO incidents in which the Wizard removed and restored Bungle's brains.
"Toto and the Truth" (Oz-story Magazine #6), the first event, is set during the concluding narrative of The Patchwork Girl of Oz, and has the Glass Cat request her original brains back, which the Wizard concedes to, and does off-screen. The onscreen event is depicted in the Oziana 2011 story "Voyaging Through Strange Seas of Thought, Alone," which reveals that the Wizard physically removed the pink brains (actually marbles) and replaced them with clear ones. (In Bungle and the Magic Lantern of Oz, Dorothy recalls that Bungle had gotten a little loopy without her original brains, climbing a tree, laughing maniacally, and spraying bubble bath on anyone who passed by.) At the urging of Scraps, the Wizard restores the pink ones, but it didn't last, as Bungle soon becomes conceited again. This caused the Wizard to magically turn her brains clear this time. (In the The Magic Carpet of Oz the Wizard says that the Glass Cat herself had requested the change to clear brains, but this doesn't seem quite right and without context, it's hard to ascertain if this request was made under threat or duress). This is confirmed in The Magic Carpet of Oz (the Bungle portion was first published in Oziana 2004 as "A Bungled Kidnapping in Oz"), which is set after The Lost Princess of Oz. In this story, after the Glass Cat rescues Ozma, she grants her wish to have her brains restored, and the Wizard does so merely by placing a black curtain over her head, and flipping a switch.
Another mystery, unrelated to the first, emerged regarding the Glass Cat's breakability. She is concerned about this issue in The Patchwork Girl of Oz, where she's first introduced, though she proves quite hardy in her later adventures. In Michael O.Riley's "The Ruby Heart," (Oz-story Magazine #5) however, she breaks in two. Then, years later, she chips again, her ear and some whiskers in Gina Wickwar's The Hidden Prince of Oz, and her whole body in Bungle and the Magic Lantern of Oz. Yet, Bungle should be relatively indestructible based on the events of Bungle of Oz, in which she makes it clear that she shouldn't break. It's only when she discovers that Dr. Pipt's Paradox Potion undid that property of the Powder of Life, and she chips her foot, that Ozma sends her to see Dr. Pipt (something Bungle didn't do in "The Ruby Heart" because Pipt wasn't allowed to perform magic at that time). Why does Bungle think she's indestructible when she's broken in so many prior adventures? One answer may be that Bungle went to her former guardian, Dr. Pipt, after the last incident, and requested more Powder of Life for the express purpose of strengthening her. This would explain why she refers to herself as "indestructible" and would have proven effective until she came in contact with the Paradox Potion.
Appendix K: Dr. Nikidik and Dr. Pipt
For several years, Oz fans pondered who these crooked magicians were, whether they were the same person, different individuals, and if so, what their roles were in Oz history. Thanks to the diligence of modern historians, this mystery has been satisfactorily solved.
In The Marvelous Land of Oz, there is a Crooked Magician who trades with Mombi for the Powder of Life. Later in that book, when they discover the Wishing Pills, Tip remembers that Mombi got the Powder of Life from a Dr. Nikidik. In The Road to Oz, the Crooked Magician is said to be the relative of one Dyna, who after he fell down a precipice and died, brought his Powder of Life home and used it accidentally on a blue bear rug. A new piece of the puzzle is added in The Patchwork Girl of Oz, when readers are introduced to one Dr. Pipt, the self-proclaimed creator of the Powder of Life, who says he's the only one who makes the Powder of Life, and who is making a new batch because he gave his last one in a trade to Mombi. Ozma also confirms that the Crooked Magician was Dr. Pipt, who Mombi traded with for the Powder of Life.
From this, some have concluded that the two crooked magicians are the same man. However, in The Lost King of Oz, the Wishing Pills are discussed as being the creation of Dr. Nikidik. This has convinced many that Dr. Pipt was the creator of the Powder of Life, and Dr. Nikidik the creator of the Wishing Pills.
As per Wooglet in Oz, Dagmar in Oz, Bungle and the Magic Lantern of Oz, The Witch Queen of Oz, The Master Crafters of Oz, The Living House of Oz, Bungle in Oz, "The Malevolent Mannequin of Oz," and other sources, Dr. Pipt, the Crooked Magician, and Dr. Nikidik are two different individuals.
Much of the discrepancy was later uncovered when it was found that due to fear of detection and a desire to remain anonymous, the two men used each other's names as aliases. Dr. Ozwald Pipt (his first name revealed in Father Goose in Oz) used the name Dr. Nikidik when he presumed he was dead, but took a different course than his former rival. He is now not only legally producing the powder of life in Oz, but is a welcome presence at the palace.
The real Dr. Nikidik (about whom Dyna lied in claiming was dead) had in fact traded with Dr. Pipt earlier (Bungle recalls that he often stole from Dr. Pipt: The Witch Queen of Oz). Nikidik was the de facto inventor of the Wishing Pills. He initially stopped practicing magic in 1902 when the law was passed, though this may have been a ruse to keep Glinda off his radar while he plotted to resurrect Enilrul, the former Witch-Queen of Oz. During this time he raised their son Nikidik the Younger, who proved less patient than his father. When that young man summoned Mombi to trick her into teaching him magic, they both got exposed to Youthing Powder and became infants, who were then put in the care of Dr. Nikidik. (Dorothy and the Magic Belt) In 1907, however, Nikidik was convinced (likely by the magician Braxus) to give up the children (to new citizens who came to Oz) and begin practicing magic again in Taker's Island, at which point he went into exile to Taker's Island with Braxus (Dagmar in Oz).
Dr. Nikidik then secretly snuck back into Oz. As per The Master Crafters of Oz, Dr. Nikidik is revealed to be an ancient, though human mage, the former consort of Enirul, both of whom had once been benevolent forces in Oz ("Lurline and the First Fairy Queen of Oz") before falling into darkness and separating. Enilrul later trapped Dr. Nikidik inside a Magic Box being held by Ozma in the palace. Ozma eventually freed him and gave him water from the Fountain of Oblivion, after which she exiled him again to Taker's Island (Wooglet in Oz). He appears to be truly reformed at this point, and after helping Oz against an invasion from the rival wizard Braxus, was awarded his magical library and tools, which he can use outside of Oz and back on Taker's Island where he returned to live, though he still visits Oz from time to time (Dagmar in Oz and "The Mystery of the Missing Ozma")
By the time of Bungle of Oz, Dr. Pipt has applied for a magic license and is back to brewing magical formulae, including the Powder of Life and the Paradox Potion. By the time of The Living House of Oz, Dr. Pipt is no longer straightened (which the Wizard did for him in The Patchwork Girl of Oz), but is back to being crooked (physically speaking). His wife, Margolette admits that she uses three different names for her husband: his original, Dr. Pipt; his assumed name, Dr. Nikidik; and his newly adopted name, Dr Widget.
Appendix L: Rulers of the Winkie Lands
The history of the Winkie rulers has been shrouded in mystery for a long time, in large part because none of the original Oz authors had an opportunity to delve into the back-story of this realm. In recent times, however, authors have been exploring the Winkie past, and have uncovered some interesting facts. Note that some of these come from stories not yet published.
1744: Queen Lana's
kingdom of Topaz City flees with Lana's chief suitor, Mr. Tinker, to the
moon (The Lost Queen of Oz)
1899: Despite having held the Wicked Witch at bay in the southern Winkie country that she ruled, Queen Gloma fears Dorothy, the "Witch Killer," and goes into hiding in the Black Forest. (The Wishing Horse of Oz)
1900: Despite being a Munchkin by birth, the Tin Woodman is elected Emperor of the Winkies due to his role in helping defeat the Wicked Witch of the West. (The Wonderful Wizard of Oz)
Appendix M: Sky Countries in Nonestica
This will continue to be added as I discover new ones, but as of my current counting, there are eleven sky countries in Nonestica. Each entry is followed by its country or origin, or the country above which it was discovered:
Sky Island (Sky Island): Sky kingdom. Floats above Nonestica
The Cloud Kingdom (Jubulut): The realm of the Cloud Tender, Jubulut, the Cloud Sculptors, and cloud fairies.
Umbrella Island (Speedy in Oz): Mechanically floating island. Originally part of Ev. Can fly anywhere
The Isle of Un (The Cowardly Lion of Oz): A skyle (aka. sky island). Floats above Oz
Cloud Country (The Hungry Tiger of Oz): A cloud realm where Atmos Fere lives. Floats high above Nonestica.
Maribella's skyland (in Grampa of Oz): A cloud realm. Floats above Oz
Anuther Planet (The Silver Princess of Oz): Sky kingdom. Planet is a misnomer. Floats above Oz.
Stratovania (Ozoplaning with the Wizard of Oz): Sky kingdom. Floats above Oz.
Sky City (The Tired Tailor of Oz): Mechanically floating island. Originally part of Ev. Can fly anywhere.
Cumuland (The Red Jinn in Oz): A cloud realm; floats above Ev, but can travel anywhere.
Kapurta (The Enchanted Island of Oz): A temporary sky island that started out as (and returned to) a Gillikin Country before becoming a sea island and then a sky island for a few days before it was wished back to land.
Appendix N: The Magical Roads of Oz
There are no less than ten sentient or sapient roads or fields in Oz. Some speak, some follow orders, some just whisk one off to wherever, but all of them are moving, magical pathways in Oz. One is an entire peninsula. How they were created is uncertain. The Wizard of Oz created two, and the Wizard Wam may have enchanted the others aeons ago for the benefit of speedy travel. The following are listed in order of appearance.
Appendix O: Tik-Tok's Troublesome Map
L. Frank Baum's map, included as the endpapers in 1914's Tik-Tok of Oz, might have seemed like a clever and creative idea at the time. But in much the same way that science-fiction sometimes tries too hard to sound spacey, Baum went too far in fantasizing the map, placing the west in the east, and the east in the west, but designating the east and west of the compass (in the top right corner) in reverse, so that the Munchkin Country, despite being on the wrong side, is still in the East, and the Winkie Country, despite being on the wrong side, was still in the West. It's clear from his books that the Munchkins are in the east and the Winkies in the West, so this was just a bit of whimsy, but it would go on to cause problems, particularly after he died.
For some reason, when Reilly & Lee reprinted the book and map, they "corrected" the compass rose, which then made the map incorrect, with the East designation on the right and the West on the left. This now made it appear as if the Munchkin Country was in the West and the Winkies in the East. Since Ruth Plumly Thompson appears have owned one of these later editions, she went on in her books to create all kinds of directional problems, which publisher Reilly & Lee didn't see or correct.
For readers, fans and authors looking for a detailed map that contains not only Baum's locations, but locations from all of the countries mentioned in the canonical series, seek out the Martin & Haff map, published by the International Wizard of Oz Club, which goes a long way towards correcting the geographical contradictions that the books make.
Yet it's not perfect either. David Maxine of Hungry Tiger Press is anxious to correct some of the problems that Martin & Haff introduced. His concept makes sense, though he desire to return to the Baumian whimsy of East/West reverse again. I'd argue that's fine, so long as there's a version for those who prefer that east is east and west is west.
With the discovery of a living Scarecrow by Dorothy Gale in 1898, it was soon understand by fans of that magical and mysterious realm that Oz was filled with unusual beings of all kinds, including walking, talking dolls. Here is a working list of them and the books they appear in. Most are friendly, but not all...
An incomplete list at this time, and one that will grow as more information comes forward. L. Frank Baum was the first to crossover Oz with other fantasy realms when he brought his non-Oz fantasy stories (now known as the Borderlands of Oz stories), into Oz. Ruth Plumly Thompson continued this tradition and brought in her own fantasy worlds, such as Pumperdink and others. But Baum also incorporated elements of other authors' fantasy stories, including Edith Ogden Harrison's Prince Silverwings, and Emerson Hough's The King of Gee-Whiz, both of which Baum worked on (for plays) and which have ideas and characters he developed in his own tales. With the precedent set, later writers continued the tradition, and as a result, several other universes now share the same universe as Oz. This list, however, chronicles crossovers with realms that may or may not exist in the same realm or dimension as the Nonestican one.
Appendix R: Deadly Desert Inhabitants (and Those Immune to It)
The four deserts surrounding Oz are known collectively as The Deadly Desert, though each has an individual name; there is the Impassable Desert of the north, the Shifting Sands to the East, the Greaty Sandy West in the south, and the Deadly Desert of the west. They are called The Deadly Desert because their sands are destructive to all living creatures, with several exceptions. The following is a list of the known creatures who either live in the Deadly Desert, or who can trod its sands without being destroyed:
As per author/illustrator Melody Grandy, here is the Emerald City Palace layout: "Here's a pic of the layout of the Emerald City Palace, based on the Famous Forty Oz books, but including a few books written after the Famous Forty. For a palace written about by several different authors, their descriptions of it hang together quite well. This is posted to help out present and future Oz authors who want to keep their Emerald City palace architecture consistent with the rest of the Oz series... the palace is at least 4 stories tall. Also, RPT mentions that Omby Amy has a cottage somewhere in the southeast gardens."
There's been a lot of mystery surrounding Glinda the Good's past, which none of the original Royal Historians ever dealt with. Perhaps they were too polite to inquire, or perhaps Glinda was too private to wish to share it with the public. In later years things seem to have loosened up, and we can glean a basic idea of her past from the tidbits that modern Royal Historians have put forward.
Gaylette is clearly an unusual woman who takes matters into her own hand! Anfuso's same story notes that Glinda's father was an unnamed traveler who went to the outside world. As this cannot be Quelala, it means that Gayelette had a prior husband (and might explain why she views men the way she does.) This will be relevant later.
In Gili Bar-Hillel's "The Woozy's Tale" (Oziana 1992), Gayelette was also said to be Glinda's cousin. This is not a contradiction. Historically, royals commonly married relatives. Also, Glinda might be related to Quelala, Gaylette's second husband. There are too many unknown variables to get a full picture of the family tree. In the new comic-book version of How the Wizard Came to Oz, Glinda is revealed to be the great niece of Locasta, who served as the Good Witch of the North prior to Orin. (That can make her Gayelette's or her father's aunt). One way mother and daughter could be cousins is if Gayelette's second husband Quelala was a cousin of Glinda's through her father's side (her father's nephew, for example). There are other scenarios that are plausible as well.
The plot thickens in Mycroft Mason's "The Solitary Sorceress of Oz" (Oziana 2011), in which Glinda is said to have come to Oz from England around 1582. While this at first glance seems difficult to reconcile, it actually accords with the prior accounts and explains Gaylette's aggravation with men. It appears that he took Glinda with him to the outside world (she was initially named Linda until years later when she developed her magic in Oz and was given the sobriquet "Good Linda" later shortened to Glinda: from Melody Grandy's The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 3). It is not known at what age she was taken or how long she spent in England, save that she was old enough to work at the palace.
In Mason's story, Glinda is working as a housemaid to the magician John "Doctor" Dee during the time he served as advisor to Queen Elizabeth I, when he opened a portal to Oz that she fell through. This raises the question: Might John Dee be her unnamed father? And if so, what was his motivation in bringing Glinda to the court of Elizabeth I? Was it to teach his daughter about the Outside World and it is to be a queen? Is this why her memory was taken away for a time? Was this on purpose or was it an accident of some kind? John Dee had first been married in 1565, the very same year Glinda was born and brought from Oz to the Outside World. If John Dee is her father, and he took her to live with him and the woman he was to marry that year, Karen Constable, with whom he had no children, then likely he took her at an older age to serve as his maid so that his wife wouldn't be suspicious that he had a child with another woman.
John Dee is from the outside world. Now, Glinda identifies (in Cory in Oz) as a fairy, but this is suspect. She's not a fairy like Ozma, Lurline or Tititi-Hoochoo (as indicated in Leprechauns in Oz), but a native-born Ozite. Thus, she's a "fairy" in the same sense that she was born in a fairyland. Glinda distinguishes Cory as being a half-fairy because while her mother hailed from Oz, her father was from the Outside World. King Cheeriobed and the Menankypoos are said to be "magically constructed" (see the notes for The Giant Horse of Oz), a difficult term to reconcile (thank you, Ms. Thompson), but which likely means they have fairy blood.
When Glinda was sent back to Oz, she arrived at the abandoned palace where she now lives, and as she could read Latin and English, went on to learn magic and discover many valuable tools. It's made clear that this was her father's castle. She yet doesn't have her memories, but this returns along with her natural powers when she discovers the hidden fountain that the Witch Queen Enilrul had dissolved in, which left behind a potent mixture of her magical essence. The Wicked Witches of the East and West had already magnified their powers when they stumbled upon it. Around 20 or so years after she returned to Oz, Glinda discovered this hidden fountain, and drank of it, becoming one of the most powerful magic users in Oz. (The Witch Queen of Oz), and regaining her memories of who she actually is.
At some point, her father returns to Oz and Glinda reunites with him, her mother Gayelette, and her sister Belinda, though it's not likely a reconciliation of the marriage. Doctor Dee's first wife died in 1574. A year after that, he married an unknown woman, who purportedly died in 1576. Might he have returned to Oz at this time? Is she the unknown woman? The timing could work, with him going back and forth to Oz, though in either case it appears that if he did marry her, it didn't last past a year. He married again in 1578, but this time he shared his wife with his friend and fellow magician Edward Kelley and had several children.
Dee's death is mysterious, as there are no exact records as to what year he purportedly died (1608 or 1609 are speculated), and both the parish records and gravestone are missing! Likely, this is the year "Doctor" Dee returned to Oz or some country in Nonestica (possibly with Glinda's help), four years after his third wife died. Similarly, there is no record of his three youngest daughters, Madinia, Frances, and Margaret, and it's possible that they chose to come to the realm of Faerie as well. If so, who are they? In the outside world, his eldest son Arthur carried on his father's magical legacy, but to date several of his books have never been recovered. Perhaps that's because they're in Oz.
Belinda, at this point, had grown angry and uncontrollable. She resents that Glinda is in line to become the Royal Sorceress of the Quadling Country (The Enchanted Gnome of Oz), perhaps thinking that since Glinda was away for so long, the position should have gone to her. She may also resent her father and mother for various reasons. It's unknown at what point Gayelette remarried, but if around this time, that also may have been a factor.
Glinda eventually became the Royal Sorceress of the Quadling Country at the time of King Jandor IV, when the royal family fled in the face of threats by Singra, the second Wicked Witch of the South, in 1820. At this point, Belinda rechristened herself Belinda the Bad, and made enemies of her parents and sister when she threatened their lives. Her father then took away her magic until she might repent of her wicked ways. Bitterly she left the Quadling Country to join the Blue Witches of the Munchkin Country.
Glinda, meanwhile, faces Singra. She had already defeated her older and far more brutal sister Angra years earlier in 1802. So popular had this made Glinda that she was then asked to become ruler of the Quadlings, a position that was ratified by the king's son (then contentedly ruling the Red Desert of Aldehydea) a few years later. Glinda defeated Singra who she put to sleep for a hundred years in 1831.
In one of the hidden passages in her castle, Glinda discovered the Great Book of Records in 1892, the same year the Wizard moved into the newly built Emerald City. Years later, when Ozma ascended the throne, in 1902, the book mysteriously unlocked.
Glinda's relationship with Gayelette appears estranged, or cordial at best, and there may be an untold story here. Neither Gayelette nor her former husband were ever brought into the accepted trio of magic users during the time magic was forbidden in Oz, and Glinda is rarely seen speaking or visiting with her, though it's certainly possible that this happens off-screen. Years later, Gayelette had another girl named Fabia, who went on to train under Glinda to become a sorceress. The birth of Fabia appears to be a late development as she was still in training when she fell in love with a mortal and ran off to the Outside World to be with him and start a family. They had a son Michael, who appears to have no powers. He remained in the Outside World with his girlfriend Marla. They had a daughter as well named Cora-Lee, or Cory, but when she was but an infant, Fabia and her husband got into a fatal car accident, and Fabia's spirit was stolen by an evil witch who'd been banished to the Outside World. It wasn't until many years later (in 1985) that Glinda recovered Fabia and Cory.
The Silver Shoes appeared for the first and only time in a canonical book in L. Frank Baum's iconic The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. They were changed by the team at MGM to Ruby Slippers because they felt red better reflected the new Technicolor production (still a novelty in 1939), and indeed they took hold of the public's imagination. Yet, despite their fame, the original Silver Shoes weren't forgotten.
The history of the Silver Shoes, as delineated by the works found on the Main Oz Timeline of The Royal Timeline of Oz, goes far back into Oz history. A creation of the dark fairy (and sister of the Fairy Queen Lurline), Enilrul, who molded them from magic silver at the bank of a silver river (The Silver Shoes of Oz), the Silver Shoes not only could transport its wearer anywhere in the worlds, but enables the wearer to shoot magical lightning bolts (Oz and the Three Witches). The Silver Shoes went with Enilrul into the fountain where she dissolved herself after cursing Pastoria I, the King of Oz (The Witch Queen of Oz). Later, they were there discovered by a young Malvonia, who went on to become the Wise Witch of the East. The fountain bestowed magic upon the Wicked Witches (and Glinda who also came upon it) and became The Fountain of Oblivion. The Wise Witch of the East later became the Wicked Witch of the East.
When Dorothy's house fell on the Wicked Witch of the East in 1898, the Silver Shoes came into Dorothy's possession, and even the Wicked Witch of the West couldn't take them from her. When Dorothy used the Shoes to wish herself back to Kansas, the Shoes were lost as she traveled over the Deadly Desert back to the Outside World.
As the sands destroy nearly all life which touches it, there they remained for five years. In 1904, when the Braided Man and a Wooden Gargoyle (protected by a spell cast by the Gargoyle) landed upon the Desert, the Braided Man discovered the Silver Shoes and put them on, but they came off again as he was flown back to his home in Pyramid Mountain. (The Braided Man of Oz).
This time the Shoes were not content to stay lost, in large part because their master had returned. In 1908, they dissolved into the sands and reconstituted themselves in Oz, where they were fished out of the Gillikin River and presented to the Good Witch of the North. Determining them too dangerous to keep in Oz, she brought them to the Bowman, a nearby giant, who used a slingshot to shoot them to Sky Island. They were likely intended to go to another witch queen, the kindly Rosalie, but instead they ended up in the Fog Bank separating the two divided lands and peoples. The Frog King there discovered them, but his ownership proved short, as Dorothy (with the help of Glinda) soon retrieved them. Yet, as soon as Dorothy returned to the Emerald City, the true owner of the Shoes emerges, Enilrul, who has herself reconstituted. Enilrul sought only to go to the Outside World, and upon using the Silver Shoes to do so, they were again lost over the Deadly Desert. (The Witch Queen of Oz)
It would be Ozma who would next discover them. On her way back from settling a dispute between Foxville and Dunkiton, the Cowardly Lion, riding upon the Magic Carpet, stubbed his toe on something sharp. Using her wand, Ozma retrieved the lost Silver Shoes. She then allowed Betsy to test them. (The Silver Shoes of Oz). From that point on, they went into Ozma's safe.
In an untold story, they get lost yet again. This time Trot and Betsy come upon them in the Valley of Lost Things in Merryland. They're unable to retrieve them. (Oziana 2014, "Lost and Never Found")
Different attempts to tell the history of the shoes are told in Jane MacNeil's Traleewu in Oz, Laura Jane Musser's "The Romance of the Silver Shoes" (Oziana 1975), and Paul Miles Schneider's Silver Shoes.
The blue, box-shaped Woozy first appeared in L. Frank Baum's The Patchwork Girl of Oz. An unusual and unique creature, he was generally gentle, though he loved to eat honeybees and could shoot fire from his eyes when angry, and nothing made him angrier than the phrase "Krizzle Kroo."
In fact, the Woozy has plenty of reason to be angry. From just Baum alone, we see he's been subject to all manner of cruelty. The Munchkin farmers literally tried to destroy him. Their justification is that he was eating their honeybees, which they raise there, but wouldn't relocating the Woozy have been a better solution that trying to kill the poor thing? What prevented the Woozy being killed by these monsters was his tough skin, but that still means he was beaten! How horrible! This element, incidentally, shows that things are not always quite as cozy and peaceful as Baum sometimes indicates, and one has to wonder—given Baum's penchant for social commentary—if he wasn't criticizing those ranchers who killed animals that ate their crops or preyed on the livestock they intended to kill themselves. (What would Baum think if he knew that ranchers now have their own secretive government agency called the Burea of Land Management who kills en masse for them?)
As if the Woozy hadn't suffered enough, the farmers then put him in a pen in the forest, build a stockade around him, and left him there to rot. Did they bring food or water? Nope, but they were thoughtful enough to come by from time to time just to harass him. We don't know the form this harassment took, but given their previous attempts at murder, I'm sure it wasn't fun. I'd like to imagine that he set a few farmers alight before they could lock him up.
In spite of all this, the Woozy emerges as kind and helpful. When he discovers that the only reason Ojo, Scraps and Bungle came to rescue him from years of hunger and what he describes as intense loneliness is because they need his three tail hairs, which he considers his "prettiest feature," he offers them up willingly!
Baum, oddly enough, never got around to giving this intriguing character an origin story, nor did any of his immediate successors. Ruth Plumly Thompson neglected him entirely, save for a short, unpublished comic-strip called "Adventures in Oz," which she wrote with John R. Neill, who also illustrated it (you can find it in the Sunday Press edition of Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz. It's probably just as well that she didn't, as she had a tendency to disenchant characters into royalty of some kind, and that would've been terribly disappointing. March Laumer attempted to provide a back-story in his short "The Woozy's Tricky Beginning," (from Oziana 1978) but as with so many of his stories it really belongs in a separate Laumerian universe from Oz.
Finally, three separate origin stories appeared, all of which can be reconciled to provide a complete picture of the Woozy's origins, and which explain why he's box-like, why he has a taste for honeybees, and why he gets angry at the phrase "Krizzle Kroo." To best understand it, we must go through them chronologically (as opposed to their publication date):
The first is A Refugee in Oz, in which it's revealed that the Madou people, who live in Sidia—an oasis upon the Deadly Desert—created the Woozy to help eat the bugs that plagued their crops. This, unfortunately, turned out to be a failed experiment because his tastes ran much more to the honeybees, which, of course, were beneficial to their crops. The spell "Krizzle Kroo" makes the Woozy immediately stop in his tracks, but it also means that someone has to be watching him night and day to make sure he's not eating their honeybees. Apparently, deeming it not worth the effort, or finding themselves unsuccessful in containing him, the Woozy's creator took him out of Sidia and left him in another land.
The next story picks up from there.
"A Trip Down Memory Lane, or How the Woozy Came to Oz" (The Emerald City Mirror #7) finds the Woozy living in the Land of Wooz, across the Deadly Desert. It's clear from the former story that this must be where the Woozy's creator left him, and where he undoubtedly named the place "the Land of Wooz." Where exactly this place is isn't stated, but it's in one of the sparsely populated countries surrounding the Deadly Desert. The Madou magician was at least kind enough to leave him someplace where honeybees grow on trees, though it's more likely he planted those trees specifically for the Woozy. He removed the Woozy's memory of life in Sidia, likely so that he wouldn't feel sad or abandoned, and, really, who wouldn't? It's not stated how long the Woozy spent there, but he would eventually find his way to Oz. In need of three hairs of a Woozy's tail for a spell (clearly a different spell than the one that would free Dr. Pipt and Margolette from the Powder of Petrifaction), Mombi sends a local farmer to the Land of Wooz to bring her the Woozy. She imprisons him and repeatedly recites the spell, which goes ""Magic, do as you do, do as you do, Krizzle Kroo!" This understandably drives the Woozy crazy, and with his fiery eyes, he melts the bars of the cage and escapes... but not before Mombi cast a forgetful spell on him. He then travelled to the Munchkin country.
The last part of his history occurs in "The Woozy's Tale." In the frame story, the Woozy is living in the Royal Stables, where he uncovers the wizard Krizzle Kroo, a Gillikin Wizard with an interesting history. Krizzle Kroo, who likely got his name from the spell that stops creatures in their tracks, appears to be a Gillikin wizard who used his magical wolves, crows and bees to terrify the Gillikins. He later helped the Wicked Witch of the West gain power in the Winkie Country. But in punishment for what he did up north, the sorceress Gayelette gains control of his creatures, and makes them subject to her magical Silver Whistle. She fails to capture the queen bee, however, and Krizzle Kroo soon creates a new hive. Once complete, he helps the Wicked Witch of the West defeat Gayelette. She, of course, keeps the Whistle for herself, and when he later discovers this (she soon uses it against the Wizard), he departs to harass her sister, the Wicked Witch of the East in the Munchkin Country.
The Woozy comes into this history here. The Wicked Witch of the East (Lady Malvonia) commands her Bootmaker to do something about the bees in her castle. Now, in the original story, the Bootmaker builds the Woozy and she brings him to life. This has to be retconned, however, in light of the fact that the Woozy was made by a Madou magician in Sidia. Likely then, the Bootmaker came upon the Woozy and brought him to the Wicked Witch, where he rid her castle of the bees. Another possibility that's more in keeping with the text is that the Bootmaker had come upon an immobile Woozy and brought him to his home. When the Wicked Witch asked for something to rid her of the bees, he brought the dormant Woozy to her and she revived him. Why was the Woozy in this state? Frankly, we don't know. This is the Munchkin Country, where farmer have no problem taking extreme measures to protect their crop. Might someone have done something to the Woozy? If so, it means the Wicked Witch of the East did some good because she brought him back, possibly from the brink.
The wizard Krizzle Kroo wasn't done with the Wicked Witch, and this time used his bees to extort Munchkin farmers to pay him taxes! The Bootmaker wasn't about to stand for that, and he took the Woozy out of the Witch's castle and set him loose on the bees. In his final act of revenge, Krizzle Kroo transformed the Bootmaker and his wife and child into the hairs on the Woozy's tail. As the Woozy already had hairs, the spell must have embedded them into the tail hairs (which might explain why after he loses his memory, he subconsciously finds them so precious later on). He then wrote down the disenchantment spell (which used his name in part) and proceeded to lose it (intentionally or not, we don't know). It took Dorothy to find it, years later, and release the Bootmaker and his family for a happy reunion.
Krizzle Kroo then takes the Woozy to a pen in a Munchkin forest not far from honeybees. He also likely takes his memory from him, making this the third time the Woozy's had his memories wiped from him! The Woozy gets out and begins eating the honeybees in the local farms, enraging the farmers who try to kill him, and then return him to the pen in the forest, and build a tall fence from which he can't escape, and upon which they put the sign "Beware the Woozy." Enter Ojo, Scraps and the Glass Cat... 12 years later to rescue him.
It's interesting that the Woozy finds out about his history piecemeal. He first learns of his capture from the Land of Wooz, Mombi's attempt to use him for a spell, and his escape from her. He then learns about the wizard Krizzle Kroo when he stops him from harming his friends in the Emerald City. Years later, he discovers his origins with the Madou people. While some would say it's convoluted, it actually makes sense. A lot of the Woozy's history is deeply traumatic, marred by abandonment (by the Madou), loss (of the Bootmaker and his family), terrible violence (by Munchkin farmers), followed by privation, hunger, imprisonment, harassment, and loneliness (in the pen in the Munchkin forest). As a fairy country, Oz seems to take care of its own, and it makes sense that the Woozy would only find out his difficult history in bite-sized pieces that he can handle.
Appendix W: Death and Aging in Oz
Written by Nathan M. DeHoff (originally on https://vovatia.wordpress.com/2017/03/18/i-wanted-eternal-youth-but-not-that-much-youth/) with editorial emendations:
L. Frank Baum says in The Tin Woodman of Oz that nobody has grown any older since the enchantment of Oz, and that specifically includes babies. Ruth Plumly Thompson modifies this in Kabumpo to say that aging is a matter of choice. But was that choice always the case, or did the enchantment itself have to be changed somewhat?
The story "Fat Babies, or The Temptation of the Hungry Tiger" suggests the latter. The Hungry Tiger meets a never-aging baby who’s been given incredible intelligence by a potion his mother took from Glinda. He confronts Ozma about always having to remain a baby, and she responds by enchanting the palace vegetable garden so it would age people.
Other Oz stories address the aging issue as well. In Eric Shanower's The
Giant Garden of Oz,
Ozma says that the fairies of Burzee used
the gas of the delicate velp vine to bestow immortality on Oz.
In Edward Einhorn’s Paradox, it’s the result of Ozma accidentally
rubbing a powder that prevents aging (made from the velp vine possibly?) on an
hourglass that’s really an alternate-universe version of Ozma’s grandfather
who lives backwards. Since such temporal anomalies affect a displaced person’s
surroundings, everyone in Oz stopped aging, with the spell running backwards
in time until shortly after Ozma took the throne. Glinda then reworks the
magic on Ozma herself with a youth potion she received from Lurline. Paul
Dana’s books propose that everyone around at the time of the enchantment
stopped aging, and that included keeping pregnant women permanently pregnant.
[The Wizard of Oz specifically points out his own aging in Oz prior to Ozma’s
reign in Paradox. This is its own conundrum, which is discussed
1. Some Ozites have been around since time immemorial, possibly due to fairy blood, specific enchantments, or localized magic. This includes the Samandrans and their neighbors. According to Joe Bongiorno’s Royal Timeline of Oz, some of this was likely a result of Lurline’s attempt to undo her sister Enilrul’s curse as described in Phil Lewin’s Witch Queen, which made them unable to die but in constant pain. The timeline dates this to the thirteenth century. Ed. Notes: Some of these events are told in greater detail in Lost Histories from the Royal Librarian of Oz.
It ends up being pretty convoluted, perhaps unavoidable when some of these works are pretty obscure anyway, and adding in Baum’s penchant for contradicting himself. He never actually did say anything that went against the idea of permanent babies (at least as far as I can remember, and I remember these books pretty well), but it seems like pretty much everybody writing after him didn’t like the idea and tried to get around it in their own ways.
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